Hysterectomy

Topic Overview

What is a hysterectomy?

A hysterectomy is surgery to take out a woman’s uterus, the organ in a woman's belly where a baby grows during pregnancy. After a hysterectomy, you will not be able to get pregnant.

Other organs might also be removed if you have severe problems such as endometriosis or cancer. These organs include the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina), the ovaries (glands on both sides of the uterus that release eggs for pregnancy), and the fallopian tubes (the passageway between the uterus and the ovaries).

Whether or not the ovaries are removed will depend on your age and risk for certain types of cancer. For example, removing the ovaries lowers the risk of ovarian cancer and some types of breast cancer. But, if you have your ovaries removed before the age of menopause, you will go into early menopause, and you may be more likely to get heart disease or osteoporosis. Be sure to discuss with your doctor all the benefits and risks of removing your ovaries.

See a picture of the female reproductive system.

What problems does this surgery treat?

Most often, hysterectomy is done to treat problems with the uterus, such as pain and heavy bleeding caused by endometriosis or fibroid tumors. The surgery may also be needed if there is cancer in the uterus, cervix, or ovaries. Some women may have the surgery during childbirth to save their lives if there is heavy bleeding that cannot be stopped.

Before you choose to have a hysterectomy, consider all of your treatment options. In many cases, this surgery is a last resort after trying other treatments for the problem.

How is the surgery done?

There are many different ways to do hysterectomy surgery. The type of surgery you have depends on three main things: the reason for the surgery, the size of the uterus and its position in the belly, and your overall health. The most common types are:

  • Abdominal hysterectomy. In this type, the doctor makes a cut in the belly, either across the bikini line or straight up and down. The doctor takes out the uterus and the cervix. This type is most often done when cancer might be present or when severe endometriosis, a lot of scar tissue (adhesions), or a very large uterus makes the uterus hard to remove.
  • Vaginal hysterectomy. With this type, the doctor takes out the uterus through the vagina. He or she makes a small cut in the vagina instead of the belly. Your doctor will not use this method when there is a chance that cancer may be in the uterus, cervix, or ovaries. Doctors use this type of surgery only in cases where the uterus is small and easy to remove.
  • Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH). To do this surgery, the doctor puts a lighted tube (laparoscope) through small cuts in your belly. The doctor can see your organs with the scope and can insert surgical tools to cut the tissue that holds your uterus in place. Then he or she can remove the uterus through your vagina.
  • Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH). With LSH, the doctor inserts the scope and tools through small cuts in your belly. He or she takes out the uterus in small pieces and leaves the cervix in place. This surgery is done only if you don't have cervical cancer.1, 2
  • Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). In this type, the doctor inserts a scope and tools through several small cuts in the belly. The doctor takes out the uterus and the cervix in small pieces through one of the cuts.

How long will it take to recover from surgery?

Feeling better after surgery takes time. Most women are in the hospital 1 or 2 days after the surgery. Some women stay in the hospital up to 4 days.

When you get home, make sure you move around, but also be sure you don't do too much. You can walk around the house and up and down stairs, but take it slow. During the first 2 weeks, it’s important to get plenty of rest. Even after you start to feel stronger, you should not lift heavy things (anything over 20 pounds). Also, you should not have sex until your doctor says it’s okay. It usually takes 4 to 8 weeks to get back to a normal routine.

Frequently Asked Questions

Learning about hysterectomy:

Being diagnosed:

Ongoing concerns:

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Decision Points focus on key medical care decisions that are important to many health problems. Decision Points focus on key medical care decisions that are important to many health problems.
  Hysterectomy and oophorectomy: Should I use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)?
  Hysterectomy: Should I also have my ovaries removed?

Why It Is Done

In most cases, hysterectomy is an elective surgery used to treat noncancerous female reproductive system (gynecologic) conditions that haven't improved with medical treatment. For women who have no plans for pregnancy and have considered and tried other treatment options without success, a hysterectomy may be a reasonable treatment choice.

Hysterectomy is also a potentially lifesaving measure when used to stop severe bleeding after childbirth or to remove cervical cancer or endometrial (uterine) cancer.

Reasons for hysterectomy include:

Hysterectomy Types

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. In some cases, the ovaries and fallopian tubes are also removed during a hysterectomy procedure. This is called a salpingo-oophorectomy.

There are three major types of hysterectomy:

  • Total hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus and the cervix, which is the lower "neck" of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
  • Subtotal hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, leaving the cervix in place. It is also known as "supracervical" or "partial" hysterectomy.
  • Radical hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, structures that support the uterus, and sometimes the lymph nodes. A radical hysterectomy may be done to treat endometriosis or cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix.

Deciding whether to have a total or subtotal hysterectomy can be difficult. This is because research that compares the two is limited and shows only small differences. In the past, experts believed that a subtotal hysterectomy reduced problems after surgery and prevented problems with urinary incontinence and/or sexual dysfunction. But research has shown that for certain conditions, a subtotal hysterectomy does not prevent these problems better than a total hysterectomy does.3

When considering a hysterectomy, ask your doctor about other treatments for your condition, what hysterectomy options are available to you, and how well hysterectomy is likely to work for you. If you have a hysterectomy, the type of procedure you have will depend on the medical reason for the hysterectomy, the size and position of your uterus, and your general state of health.

Different hysterectomy procedures (how the uterus is removed) include:

  • Abdominal hysterectomy.
  • Vaginal hysterectomy.
  • Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH).
  • Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH).
  • Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH).

For more information about procedures, see the section Comparison of Different Hysterectomy Procedures in this topic.

Comparison of Hysterectomy Procedures

There are several different hysterectomy procedures, each with advantages and disadvantages. Depending on your reason for considering a hysterectomy, you may have a choice between two or more procedures. For complicated or cancer-related conditions that require maximum access and careful examination, your doctor will likely recommend only an abdominal hysterectomy.

Vaginal hysterectomy

This type of hysterectomy is performed through a small incision in the vagina, rather than through an abdominal incision. The ovaries and other organs may also be removed. Vaginal hysterectomy tends to cause less pain, and takes less healing time than abdominal hysterectomy. A vaginal hysterectomy can be done:

  • To remove small uterine fibroids.
  • When the uterus is of normal size or slightly enlarged. But some experienced surgeons are able to safely remove a very enlarged uterus without higher risk of complications.4
  • When endometriosis growths (implants) are not present.

Vaginal hysterectomy requires more specialized surgical skill than an abdominal hysterectomy. It can pose a higher risk of injury to other organs. Vaginal hysterectomy is not used when there is a question about possible cancer in the uterus, cervix, or ovaries.

Abdominal hysterectomy

This type of hysterectomy is done through a larger abdominal incision, giving the surgeon the best possible access to the pelvic organs. The cervix may be removed with the uterus (total hysterectomy) or left in place (subtotal hysterectomy). The ovaries and other organs may also be removed. An abdominal hysterectomy is typically done when:

  • The uterus is very large.
  • Uterine fibroids are larger than 8 in. (20 cm) across or located around blood vessels.
  • Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix is possible.
  • An ovarian growth (mass) is suspected but can't be diagnosed on ultrasound.
  • There is significant scarring or severe endometriosis in the pelvic area.

If a hysterectomy is chosen to treat endometriosis, an abdominal hysterectomy is usually required; for example, when endometriosis growths (implants) or scar tissue (adhesions) must be removed to restore the function of other organs.

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)

Laparoscopic hysterectomy is done with a viewing instrument (laparoscope) and surgical instruments inserted through a vaginal incision and one or more small abdominal incisions. The ovaries and other organs may also be removed. The uterus is removed through the vagina. It is done:

  • When uterine fibroids are small to moderate in size.
  • When the uterus is slightly larger than normal.
  • To remove endometriosis and scar tissue (adhesions) confined to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
  • To assess or remove ovaries at the same time as a vaginal hysterectomy.

LAVH is a newer surgery and requires the surgeon to have specialized training.

Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH)

Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy is done by inserting a laparoscope and surgical instruments through several small abdominal incisions. The uterus is removed in small pieces through one of the incisions; the cervix is left intact (this is also known as subtotal or partial hysterectomy). This type of procedure usually causes minimal blood loss and pain. The hospital stay is shorter than for total abdominal surgery. Most women can return to normal activity a week or two afterward. LSH can be done:

  • To remove uterine fibroids of any size.
  • To remove a uterus of any size.

LSH is a newer surgery and requires special training. It usually takes longer to perform than abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. LSH is not available in some geographic areas.

Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH)

The total laparoscopic hysterectomy is done by inserting a laparoscope and surgical instruments through several small incisions in the abdomen. The uterus and the cervix are removed in small pieces through one of the incisions. TLH can be done:

  • To remove uterine fibroids that are small to moderate in size.
  • When there is not a lot of scar tissue in the pelvic area.
  • When there is not a worry about cancer in the ovaries.

TLH is a newer surgery and requires the surgeon to have special training. It usually takes longer to do than abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. But recovery and hospital stay are shorter than for total abdominal hysterectomy. TLH is not available in many parts of the country.

Advantages and disadvantages of hysterectomy procedures
Hysterectomy procedure Advantages Disadvantages
Vaginal hysterectomy
  • Enables removal of a normal to slightly larger-than-normal uterus and small uterine fibroids (some experienced surgeons are able to safely remove a very enlarged uterus)4
  • When compared with LAVH or abdominal hysterectomy, requires a shorter hospital stay5
  • Tends to cause less pain during recovery than after an abdominal surgery
  • Doesn't leave scars on the abdomen

When compared with abdominal hysterectomy, a routine vaginal hysterectomy:

  • Doesn't allow free access to the pelvic organs—the doctor may not be able to remove a very large uterus; large fibroids; areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions).
  • Isn't used for cancer-related surgery.
  • May need to be switched to an abdominal surgery if the doctor is unable to remove a very large uterus or areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions).
Abdominal hysterectomy
  • Provides the surgeon good visibility and easy access to the pelvic organs
  • Enables removal of a very large uterus or large areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions)
  • Cervix can be removed or left in place
  • Requires less time under anesthesia and in surgery than a laparoscopic hysterectomy6

When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine abdominal hysterectomy:

  • Requires longer hospital stay and recovery time.5
  • Costs more than a vaginal hysterectomy.5
  • Tends to lead to more pain during recovery.
  • Leaves a visible scar on the abdomen. A bikini-line incision may be possible.
Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)
  • Allows your doctor to examine your pelvic organs and remove cysts, scar tissue (adhesions), fibroids, and areas of infection
  • When compared with abdominal hysterectomy, requires a shorter hospital stay and causes less pain during recovery
  • Smaller scars on the abdomen than with an abdominal hysterectomy

When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine LAVH:

  • May need to be switched to an abdominal surgery if the doctor is unable to remove a very large uterus or areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions).
  • Costs more and takes more time to perform.5
  • May have an increased risk of injury if the surgeon is inexperienced.5
Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH)
  • When compared with abdominal hysterectomy, requires a shorter hospital stay, with a faster and less painful recovery
  • Leaves smaller scars on the abdomen than with an abdominal hysterectomy

When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine LSH:

  • May need to be switched to an abdominal surgery if the doctor is unable to remove a very large uterus or areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions).
  • Is likely to cost more.
  • May have an increased risk of injury if the surgeon is inexperienced.5
Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH)
  • Does not use an incision in the wall of the vagina
  • When compared with abdominal hysterectomy, requires a shorter hospital stay, with a faster and less painful recovery
  • Leaves smaller scars on the abdomen than with an abdominal hysterectomy

When compared with other types of hysterectomy, a routine TLH:

  • May need to be switched to an abdominal surgery if the doctor is unable to remove a very large uterus or areas of endometriosis, adenomyosis, or scar tissue (adhesions).
  • Is likely to cost more.

Risks of Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy poses some risks of major and minor complications. But most women do not have complications after a hysterectomy.

Some studies have shown complication rates that are about the same for total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), and total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH).7, 8 Your risk of problems after surgery may be higher or lower than average. This may depend in part on how experienced the surgeon is.

Major medical complications after hysterectomy

Rates of major complications after vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy (rounded to nearest 0.5%):6

Complications after hysterectomy
Type of complication Vaginal hysterectomy (without laparoscopy) Abdominal hysterectomy (without laparoscopy)

Heavy blood loss requiring blood transfusion

3%

2.5%

Bowel injury

0

1%

Bladder injury

1%

1%

Blood clot in lung (pulmonary embolism)

0

1%

Anesthesia problems (such as breathing or heart problems)

0

0

Need to change to abdominal incision during surgery

4%

0.5% (repeat incision)

Wound pulling open (dehiscence)

0

0.5%

Collection of blood (hematoma) at the surgery site needing surgical drainage

1%

1%

At least one major complication

9.5%

6%

In the study described above, the major complication rate was nearly twice as high after laparoscopic abdominal hysterectomies than after open abdominal hysterectomies. Complication rates were about the same for vaginal and laparoscopic vaginal surgeries. (These rates do not apply to radical hysterectomy done to treat cancer.)

  • About 11% of women had at least one major complication after the laparoscopic abdominal surgery, compared with about 6% of those who had an open abdominal surgery.
  • Although most major complications were equally rare after both types of surgery, more women had heavy blood loss requiring a transfusion after abdominal laparoscopic hysterectomy (4.6%) than after open abdominal hysterectomy (2.4%).

Minor medical complications after hysterectomy

Rates of minor complications after vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy (rounded to nearest 0.5%):6

Minor medical complications after hysterectomy
Type of complication Vaginal hysterectomy (without laparoscopy) Abdominal hysterectomy (without laparoscopy)

Heavy blood loss not requiring transfusion

1%

1%

Fever

7%

3%

Infection

14%

16%

Collection of blood (hematoma) at the surgery site not needing surgical drainage

6%

6%

At least one minor complication

28%

27%

In the study described above, there was no significant difference in minor complication rates, whether the hysterectomy was laparoscopic, vaginal, or abdominal. (These rates do not apply to radical hysterectomy done to treat cancer.)

Infection risk is lowest when your doctor gives you antibiotic medicine at the time of surgery.9

Other ongoing complications of hysterectomy include:

  • Difficulty urinating. This is more common after removal of lymph nodes, ovaries, and structures that support the uterus (radical hysterectomy).
  • Weakness of the pelvic muscles and ligaments that support the vagina, bladder, and rectum. Kegel exercises may help strengthen the pelvic muscles and ligaments. However, some women need other treatments, including additional surgery.
  • Continued heavy bleeding. Some vaginal bleeding within 4 to 6 weeks following a hysterectomy is expected. But call your doctor if bleeding continues to be heavy.
  • Some women may experience early menopause.
  • The formation of scar tissue (adhesions) in the pelvic area.

Preparing for a Hysterectomy

Before a hysterectomy, you may have:

  • A physical examination, during which your doctor will ask you questions about your medical history.
  • A pelvic examination.
  • Blood tests.
  • An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), which measures the electrical signals that control the rhythm of your heartbeat, if you are over the age of 40 or have diabetes or high blood pressure.
  • A meeting with the doctor who will perform the hysterectomy. During this meeting, the doctor will explain how the surgery will be done, where the surgical incisions will be made, and the risks and expected outcomes of the surgery. You will probably receive written instructions about how to prepare for surgery at this time.
  • A meeting with an anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist. During this meeting, you will discuss the types of anesthetic recommended for use during the surgery. You may not meet with this person until the day of your surgery.

Your doctor may order additional tests based on your physical examination and medical history. These tests may include:

See a list of questions to ask your doctor when you are considering hysterectomy.

When to Call a Doctor

After a hysterectomy, call your doctor or go to the emergency room if:

  • You have bright red vaginal bleeding that soaks one or more pads in an hour, or you have large clots.
  • You have foul-smelling discharge from your vagina.
  • You are sick to your stomach or cannot keep fluids down.
  • You have signs of infection, such as:
    • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness.
    • Red streaks leading from the incision.
    • Pus draining from the incision.
    • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, or groin.
    • A fever.
  • You have pain that does not get better after you take pain medicine.
  • You have loose stitches, or your incision comes open.
  • You have signs of a blood clot, such as:
    • Pain in your calf, back of knee, thigh, or groin.
    • Redness and swelling in your leg or groin.
  • You have trouble passing urine or stool, especially if you have pain or swelling in your lower belly.
  • You have hot flashes, sweating, flushing, or a fast or pounding heartbeat.

Your doctor will give you specific instructions after your hysterectomy. Be sure to follow them. Usually, getting some rest and following those instructions will help postoperative problems diminish over time.

Recovery

Recovering from a hysterectomy takes time. You will stay in the hospital for 1 to 2 days for postsurgery care. Some women stay in the hospital up to 4 days.

Abdominal hysterectomy. As soon as you feel strong enough, get up and around as much as you can. This helps prevent problems after surgery like blood clots, pneumonia, and gas pains. During the first 2 to 3 weeks it is important to also get plenty of rest. You will gradually be able to increase your activities. To help you heal well, avoid lifting more than 20 pounds during the first 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. For the same reason, this is also an important time to avoid vaginal intercourse.

As soon as you can move easily without pain or without using narcotic pain medicine, you can drive. Complete recovery usually takes 4 to 8 weeks. Your return to a work routine will depend not only on how quickly you get back your energy and strength but also on how demanding your work is.

Vaginal or laparoscopic hysterectomy. As soon as you feel strong enough, get up and around as much as you can. This helps prevent problems after surgery like blood clots, pneumonia, and gas pains. When you can move easily without pain, you can drive. To help you heal well, avoid lifting more than 20 pounds during the first 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. For the same reason, this is also an important time to avoid vaginal intercourse.

Recovery from a vaginal or laparoscopic hysterectomy takes much less time than from an abdominal surgery. After a routine laparoscopic surgery removing the uterus but not the cervix (laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy, or LSH), most women are able to return to normal activity in 1 to 2 weeks. About 4 to 6 weeks after the hysterectomy, see your health professional for a follow-up examination.

How effective is hysterectomy for improving my symptoms?

For women who have severe symptoms and have tried other treatments, hysterectomy may be the next treatment option. For more information about how hysterectomy may or may not help different health problems, see:

What are possible long-term problems after hysterectomy?

Pelvic weakness. After a hysterectomy, some women develop other physical problems that are related to weakness of the pelvic muscles and ligaments that support the vagina, bladder, and rectum. Kegel exercises may help strengthen the pelvic muscles and ligaments. But some women need other treatments, including additional surgery.

Vaginal dryness from low estrogen levels may develop if your ovaries were removed (oophorectomy). This can also develop gradually after a hysterectomy. If sexual intercourse is painful because of vaginal dryness:

  • Use a vaginal lubricant, such as K-Y Jelly or Astroglide, or a polyunsaturated vegetable oil that does not contain preservatives. If you are using condoms, use a water-based lubricant, rather than an oil-based lubricant. Oil can weaken the condom so that it breaks. Avoid petroleum jelly (for example, Vaseline) as a lubricant because it increases the risk of vaginal irritation and infection.
  • Use a low-dose vaginal estrogen cream, ring, or tablet, which will reverse vaginal dryness and irritation by affecting only the vaginal area. If you are having other menopausal symptoms, talk to your doctor about systemic estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and other treatment options. For more treatment information, see the topic Menopause and Perimenopause.
Click here to view a Decision Point. Should I use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) after a hysterectomy or oophorectomy?

Pain during intercourse may occur if your vagina was shortened during your hysterectomy. Changing positions may help make intercourse less painful. Talk with your doctor if you have any difficulty during intercourse after a hysterectomy.

How will I feel emotionally after my hysterectomy?

It is normal to have various concerns when faced with the possibility of having a hysterectomy. A woman's emotions are often based on her beliefs about the importance of her uterus, her fears about her health or personal relationships after a hysterectomy, and concerns about her enjoyment of sexual activities after surgery. If you are considering a hysterectomy, talk with your doctor about your specific fears and anxieties concerning the surgery.

What to Think About

Hysterectomy is performed more often in the United States than in any other country.10 Your doctor may suggest other treatments before recommending a hysterectomy. If you are considering a hysterectomy and would like more information about other treatments or surgeries, talk with your doctor. Ask about the risks and benefits of each option. Consider both the immediate and long-term risks and benefits of all treatments.

Hysterectomy is a necessary and effective treatment for cancer of the pelvic organs, a severe infection of the uterus, or uncontrollable bleeding.

Following hysterectomy, you will not be able to become pregnant. If you have plans for a future pregnancy, hysterectomy is not an appropriate treatment option for conditions such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or pelvic organ prolapse. Talk with your doctor about other treatments.

Hysterectomy is not used to prevent pregnancy. There are many methods of birth control that are safe and effective. If you are not sure which method is best for you, talk with your doctor about your options. For more information, see the topic Birth Control.

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)

Women who have early, sudden menopause after hysterectomy are usually advised to use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to protect against bone loss. The low estrogen levels of menopause cause bone thinning. Compared with women who are not taking hormone therapy, women taking ERT have fewer hip fractures (a sign of estrogen's bone-protecting effect).11

ERT also helps with menopausal symptoms. Known ERT risks come from studies of women older than 50. It may be that the benefits outweigh the risks for younger women who take ERT until the age of natural menopause.12 This question needs further research.

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studied estrogen-only therapy in older women and found that it increases the risks of blood clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and lungs (pulmonary embolism) and the risk of stroke during the first year of use.11 ERT offered no protection against heart disease. It was linked to ovarian cancer in a small number of women.13, 14

Some studies have found a possible link between ERT and breast cancer.15 In the WHI trial, women using ERT had no increase in breast cancer risk during the study's nearly 7 years of ERT treatment.11 But the Million Women Study of British women ages 50 to 64 suggests that after 10 years of taking ERT, a small number of women develop breast cancer that is related to ERT.16, 17 (Many women in this age group also develop breast cancer without taking hormone therapy.)

For more information, see:

Click here to view a Decision Point. Should I use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) after a hysterectomy or oophorectomy?

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
409 12th Street SW
P.O. Box 96920
Washington, DC  20090-6920
Phone: (202) 638-5577
E-mail: resources@acog.org
Web Address: www.acog.org
 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) is a nonprofit organization of professionals who provide health care for women, including teens. The ACOG Resource Center publishes manuals and patient education materials. The Web publications section of the site has patient education pamphlets on many women's health topics, including reproductive health, breast-feeding, violence, and quitting smoking.


International Premature Ovarian Failure Association
P.O. Box 23643
Alexandria, VA  22304
Phone: (703) 913-4787
Web Address: www.pofsupport.org
 

This organization offers support for women who have entered menopause early. The organization offers information, referrals, phone support, and literature.


National Women's Health Information Center
8270 Willow Oaks Corporate Drive
Fairfax, VA  22031
Phone: 1-800-994-9662
(202) 690-7650
Fax: (202) 205-2631
TDD: 1-888-220-5446
Web Address: www.womenshealth.gov
 

The National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC) is a service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. NWHIC provides women's health information to a variety of audiences, including consumers, health professionals, and researchers.


National Women's Health Network
514 10th Street NW
Suite 400
Washington, DC  20004
Phone: (202) 347-1140
Fax: (202) 347-1168
E-mail: nwhn@nwhn.org
Web Address: www.womenshealthnetwork.org/
 

This nonprofit advocacy group includes consumers, health centers, and organizations. The National Women's Health Network monitors federal health policy and operates an information clearinghouse.


References

Citations

  1. Gimbel H, et al. (2005). Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy: Results of a randomized controlled trial. International Urogynecology Journal, 16: 257–262.
  2. Thakar RT, et al. (2002). Outcomes after total versus subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(17): 1318–1325.
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2007). Supracervical hysterectomy. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 388. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110(5): 1215–1217.
  4. Benassi L, et al. (2002). Abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy for enlarged uteri: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 187: 1561–1565.
  5. Campbell ES, et al. (2003). Types of hysterectomy: Comparison of characteristics, hospital costs, utilization and outcomes. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 48: 943–949.
  6. Garry R, et al. (2004). The eVALuate study: Two parallel randomised trials, one comparing laparoscopic with abdominal hysterectomy, the other comparing laparoscopic with vaginal hysterectomy. BMJ, 328(7432): 129.
  7. Hoffman CP, et al. (2005). Laparoscopic hysterectomy: The Kaiser Permanente San Diego experience. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, 12(1): 16–24.
  8. Ghezzi F, et al. (2006). Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus total laparoscopic hysterectomy for the management of endometrial cancer: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, 13(2): 114–120.
  9. Abramowicz M (2004). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery. Treatment Guidelines From the Medical Letter, 2(20): 27–32.
  10. Farquhar CM, Steiner CA (2002). Hysterectomy rates in the United States 1900–1997. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 99(2): 229–234.
  11. Women's Health Initiative Steering Committee (2004). Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA, 291(14): 1701–1712.
  12. North American Menopause Society (2008). Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause, 15(4): 584–602. Also available online: www.menopause.org/PSHT08.pdf.
  13. Rossouw JE, et al. (2007). Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA, 297(13): 1465–1477.
  14. Beral V, et al. (2007). Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet, 369(9574): 1703–1710.
  15. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Women's Health Care Physicians (2004). Breast cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 104(4, Suppl): 11S–16S.
  16. Million Women Study Collaborators (2003). Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet, 362(9382): 419–427.
  17. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Women's Health Care Physicians (2004). Stroke. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 104(4, Suppl): 97S–105S.

Credits

Author Sandy Jocoy, RN
Editor Kathleen M. Ariss, MS
Associate Editor Pat Truman, MATC
Primary Medical Reviewer Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Kirtly Jones, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Last Updated August 12, 2008

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