Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]

National Cancer Institute logo  

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER

Neuroblastoma Treatment

Purpose of This PDQ Summary

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of neuroblastoma. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board.

Information about the following is included in this summary:

  • Unique aspects of neuroblastoma.
  • Cellular classification.
  • Stage information.
  • Treatment options.

This summary is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians and other health professionals who care for pediatric cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.

Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Pediatric and Adult Treatment Editorial Boards use a formal evidence ranking system in developing their level-of-evidence designations. Based on the strength of the available evidence, treatment options are described as either "standard" or "under clinical evaluation." These classifications should not be used as a basis for reimbursement determinations.

This summary is also available in a patient version, which is written in less technical language, and in Spanish.

General Information

Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ Editorial Boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals, patients, and the public.

Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Children and adolescents with cancer should be referred to medical centers that have a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists with experience treating the cancers that occur during childhood and adolescence. This multidisciplinary team approach incorporates the skills of the primary care physician, pediatric surgical subspecialists, radiation oncologists, pediatric medical oncologists/hematologists, rehabilitation specialists, pediatric nurse specialists, social workers, and others to ensure that children receive treatment, supportive care, and rehabilitation that will enable them to achieve optimal survival and quality of life. (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Supportive and Palliative Care for specific information about supportive care for children and adolescents with cancer).

Guidelines for pediatric cancer centers and their role in the treatment of pediatric patients with cancer have been outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[1] At these pediatric cancer centers, clinical trials are available for most types of cancer that occur in children and adolescents, and the opportunity to participate in these trials is offered to most patients and families. Clinical trials for children and adolescents with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapies for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

In recent decades, dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up since cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors).

Neuroblastoma is predominantly a tumor of early childhood, with two-thirds of the cases presenting in children aged 5 years or younger. Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla or the paraspinal sites where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present. These tumors can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups as illustrated in the Stage Information section of this summary. Low- and intermediate-risk patients usually have localized disease or are infants aged 18 months or younger. In rare cases, neuroblastoma can be discovered prenatally by fetal ultrasonography.[2]

Predisposition to Neuroblastoma

Little is known about the events that predispose to the development of neuroblastoma. Parental exposures have not been definitively linked. In a genome-wide association study of 1,032 patients with neuroblastoma, a significant association was observed between a common genetic variation (polymorphism) at chromosome 6p22 and neuroblastoma. Tumors that arose in patients with this polymorphism tended to be clinically aggressive.[3] Germline deletion at the 1p36 or 11q14-23 locus are associated with the development of neuroblastoma and the same deletions are found somatically in sporadic neuroblastomas.[4,5]

About 1% to 2% of patients with neuroblastoma have a family history of neuroblastoma, and these children are on average younger (9 months); about 20% have multifocal primary neuroblastomas. The primary cause of familial neuroblastoma is germline mutation in the ALK gene.[6] Similar somatic mutations and amplification of the ALK gene are found in 8% to12% of sporadic neuroblastomas. The mutations result in constitutive phosphorylation of ALK, which is critical for cell growth of the ALK-mutant neuroblasts. Thus, inhibition of ALK kinase is a potential target for treatment of neuroblastoma, especially in children whose tumors harbor an ALK mutation or ALK gene amplification.[7] Familial neuroblastoma is rarely associated with Ondine's curse (congenital central hypoventilation syndrome) with germline mutation of the PHOX2B gene.[8]

Presentation of Neuroblastoma

The most common presentation of neuroblastoma is an abdominal mass. The most common symptoms in high-risk patients are due to a tumor mass or to bone pain from metastases. Proptosis and periorbital ecchymosis are common in these high-risk patients and arise from retrobulbar metastasis. Extensive bone marrow metastasis may result in pancytopenia. Abdominal distention with respiratory compromise due to massive liver metastases may occur in infants. Because they originate in paraspinal ganglia, neuroblastomas may invade through neural foramina and compress the spinal cord extradurally, causing paralysis. Horner syndrome may be caused by neuroblastoma in the stellate ganglion, and children with Horner syndrome without apparent cause should be examined for neuroblastoma and other tumors.[9] Fever, anemia, and hypertension are occasionally found. Multifocal (multiple primaries) neuroblastoma occurs rarely, usually in infants, and generally has a good prognosis.[10] On rare occasions, children may have severe, watery diarrhea due to the secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) by the tumor, or may have protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal lymphangiectasia.[11] VIP secretion may also occur upon chemotherapeutic treatment, and tumor resection reduces VIP secretion.[12]

Opsoclonus/Myoclonus syndrome

Children with neuroblastoma rarely present with paraneoplastic neurologic findings, including cerebellar ataxia or opsoclonus/myoclonus.[13] Neurologic dysfunction is most often a presenting symptom but may arise long after removal of the tumor. Opsoclonus/myoclonus syndrome is frequently associated with pervasive and permanent neurologic and cognitive deficits, including psychomotor retardation.[14,15,16]

The opsoclonus/myoclonus syndrome appears to be caused by an immunologic mechanism that is not yet fully defined.[14,17] Unlike most other neuroblastomas, the primary tumor is typically diffusely infiltrated with lymphocytes.[18] Patients who present with this syndrome often have neuroblastomas with favorable biological features and are likely to survive, though tumor-related deaths have been reported.[14]

Some patients may clinically respond to removal of the neuroblastoma, but improvement may be slow and partial; symptomatic treatment is often necessary. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) treatment is thought to be effective, but some patients do not respond to ACTH.[15,17] Various drugs, plasmapheresis, intravenous gamma-globulin (IVIG), and rituximab have been reported to be effective in selected cases.[15,19,20,21] The long-term neurologic outcome may be superior in patients treated with chemotherapy, possibly because of its immunosuppressive effects.[13,19] The use of immunosuppressive therapy with and without IVIG in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus/myoclonus syndrome is currently under study by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) (COG-ANBL00P3).

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of neuroblastoma requires the involvement of pathologists who are familiar with childhood tumors. Some neuroblastomas cannot be differentiated, via conventional light microscopy, from other small round blue cell tumors of childhood, such as lymphomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and rhabdomyosarcomas. Evidence for sympathetic neuronal differentiation may be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, or by finding elevated levels of serum catecholamines (e.g., dopamine and norepinephrine) or urine catecholamine metabolites, such as vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) or homovanillic acid (HVA). The minimum criterion for a diagnosis of neuroblastoma, as has been established by international agreement, is that it must be based on ONE of the following:

1. An unequivocal pathologic diagnosis made from tumor tissue by light microscopy (with or without immunohistology, electron microscopy, or increased levels of serum catecholamines or urinary catecholamine metabolites).[22]
2. The combination of bone marrow aspirate or trephine biopsy containing unequivocal tumor cells (e.g., syncytia or immunocytologically-positive clumps of cells) AND increased levels of serum catecholamines or urinary catecholamine metabolites, as described above.[22]

However, primary tumor tissue is often needed to obtain all the biological data that may be used to determine treatment in current COG clinical trials. There is an absolute requirement for tissue biopsy to determine the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) (see Cellular Classification section for more information). The INPC was used to determine treatment in the COG risk assignment schema for prior COG studies in patients with stage 2, 3, and 4S tumors. In the risk/treatment group assignment schema for the current COG studies, INPC is used to determine treatment for stage 3 and 4S patients as well as for stage 4 patients aged 18 months or younger. Additionally, a significant number of tumor cells are needed to determine MYCN copy number DNA index and 11q and 1p loss of heterozygosity. For older stage 4 patients, bone marrow with extensive tumor involvement combined with elevated catecholamine metabolites is adequate for study entry.

Prognosis

Approximately 70% of patients with neuroblastoma have metastatic disease at diagnosis. The prognosis for patients with neuroblastoma is related to their age at diagnosis, clinical stage of disease, site of the primary tumor, tumor histology, and, in patients older than 1 year, regional lymph node involvement. Biological prognostic variables are also used to help determine treatment (see below).[23,24,25,26] The 5-year overall survival for all infants and children with neuroblastoma has increased from 52% when diagnosed between 1973 and 1982, to 74% when diagnosed between 1999 and 2005;[27] however, this single number can be misleading due to the extremely heterogeneous prognosis based on the neuroblastoma patients age, stage, and biology. (Refer to the Cellular Classification section of this summary for more information.)

Age

The effect of age at diagnosis on 5-year survival is profound—age less than one year is 90%, one to four years is 68%, five to nine years is 52%, and 10 to 14 years is 66%.[27] Children of any age with localized neuroblastoma and infants aged 18 months and younger with advanced disease and favorable disease characteristics have a high likelihood of long-term, disease-free survival.[23,28] The prognosis of fetal and neonatal neuroblastoma are similar to that of older infants with neuroblastoma and similar biological features.[29] Older children with advanced-stage disease, however, have a significantly decreased chance for cure, despite intensive therapy. For children aged 18 months and older with stage 4 neuroblastoma, who receive aggressive treatment with surgery and radiation therapy to the primary tumor mass, as well as aggressive chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue followed by cis -retinoic acid, long-term survival is approximately 30% to 50%.[30]

The clinical characteristics of neuroblastoma in adolescents are similar to those observed in children. The only exception is that bone marrow involvement occurs less frequently, and there is a greater frequency of metastases in unusual sites such as lung or brain.[31] Neuroblastoma has a worse long-term prognosis in an adolescent or adult compared to a child, regardless of stage or site and, in many cases, a more prolonged course when treated with standard doses of chemotherapy. Aggressive chemotherapy and surgery have been shown to achieve a minimal disease state in more than 50% of these patients.[31,32,33] Other modalities, such as local radiation therapy and the use of agents with confirmed activity, may improve the poor prognosis.[32,33] However, the overall prognosis for older patients is dismal.

Biologic factors

A number of biologic variables have been studied in children with this tumor.[34] Treatment decisions are usually based on important factors such as the INPC (refer to the Cellular Classification section of this summary for information about the INPC system), ploidy, amplification of the MYCN oncogene within tumor tissue, unbalanced 11q loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and LOH for chromosome 1p.[26,28,35,36,37,38,39,40] In the future, MYCN amplification, 11q23 alleles, and ploidy (along with standardized procedures for evaluation) are expected to be the standard factors used for evaluation of treatment programs, as established by the International Consensus for Neuroblastoma Molecular Diagnostics.[41] An open biopsy is often needed to obtain adequate tissue for determination of these biological characteristics.

Many biological characteristics of tumors are not currently used in determining therapy; however, as clinical research matures, these characteristics may be found useful as therapeutic targets or as clinically important prognostic factors. Amplification of the MYCN gene is associated not only with deletion of chromosome 1p, but also gain of the long arm of chromosome 17(17q), the latter of which independently predicts a poor prognosis.[42] In contrast to MYCN gene amplification, the degree of expression of the MYCN gene in the tumor does not predict prognosis.[43] However, high overall MYCN-dependent gene expression and low expression of sympathetic neuron late differentiation genes both predict a poor outcome of neuroblastomas otherwise considered to be at low or intermediate risk of recurrence.[44] Other biological prognostic factors that have been extensively investigated include tumor cell telomere length, telomerase activity, and telomerase ribonucleic acid;[45,46] urinary VMA, HVA, and their ratio;[47] dopamine; CD44 expression; TrkA gene expression; serum neuron-specific enolase level, serum lactic dehydrogenase level, and serum ferritin level.[34] High-level expression of the MRP1 drug resistance gene is an independent indicator of decreased survival.[48] The profile of GABAergic receptors expressed in neuroblastoma is predictive of prognosis regardless of age, stage, and MYCN gene amplification.[49] Gene expression profiling may prove useful for prognosis prediction.[50] Whole chromosome copy number changes do not predict recurrence, while segmental chromosome number changes do.[51] In addition, response to treatment has been associated with outcome. The persistence of neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow during or after chemotherapy, for example, is associated with a poor prognosis.[52,53]

Unique Aspects of Neuroblastoma

Biologically discrete types of neuroblastoma

Based on biologic factors and an improved understanding of the molecular development of the neural crest cells that give rise to neuroblastoma, the tumors have been categorized into three biological types. These types are not used to determine treatment at this time; however, type 1 has a very favorable prognosis, while types 2 and 3 have poor prognoses.

  • Type 1: Expresses the TrkA neurotrophin receptor, is hyperdiploid, and tends to spontaneously regress.[54,55]
  • Type 2: Expresses the TrkB neurotrophin receptor and its ligand, has gained an additional copy of chromosome 17q, has LOH of 14q or 11q, and is genomically unstable.[54,55]
  • Type 3: Has a gain of chromosome 17q, loss of chromosome 1p, and the MYCN gene becomes amplified.[54,55]

Neuroblastoma screening

Current data do not support neuroblastoma screening. Screening infants for neuroblastoma by assay of urinary catecholamine metabolites was initiated in Japan.[56] A large population-based North American study, in which most infants in Quebec were screened at the ages of 3 weeks and 6 months, has shown that screening detects many neuroblastomas with favorable characteristics [57,58] that would never have been detected clinically, apparently due to spontaneous regression of the tumors. Another study of infants screened at the age of 1 year shows similar results.[59] Screening at the ages of 3 weeks, 6 months, or 1 year caused no reduction in the incidence of advanced-stage neuroblastoma with unfavorable biological characteristics in older children, nor did it reduce the number of deaths from neuroblastoma in infants screened at any age.[58,59] No public health benefits have been shown from screening infants for neuroblastoma at these ages. (Refer to the PDQ summary Neuroblastoma Screening for more information.)

Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma

This phenomenon has been well described in infants, especially in those with the 4S pattern of metastatic spread.[60] (Refer to the Stage Information section of this summary for more information.) In a German clinical trial, spontaneous regression and/or lack of progression occurred in nearly half of 93 asymptomatic infants aged 12 months or younger with stage 1, 2, or 3 tumors without MYCN amplification; all were observed after partial or no resection.[61] Regression generally occurs only in tumors with a near triploid number of chromosomes, no MYCN amplification, and no loss of chromosome 1p. Additional features associated with spontaneous regression [62,63] include the lack of telomerase expression,[64,65] the expression of Ha-ras,[66] and the expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkA, a nerve growth factor receptor.

Recent studies have suggested that selected infants who appear to have asymptomatic, small, low-stage adrenal neuroblastoma detected by screening or during prenatal or incidental ultrasound examination, often have tumors that spontaneously regress and may be observed safely without surgical intervention or tissue diagnosis.[67,68,69] The COG is currently studying whether it is feasible to simply observe, without diagnostic biopsy, neonates with small adrenal masses that are presumed to be neuroblastomas (COG-ANBL00P2).

References:

1. Guidelines for the pediatric cancer center and role of such centers in diagnosis and treatment. American Academy of Pediatrics Section Statement Section on Hematology/Oncology. Pediatrics 99 (1): 139-41, 1997.
2. Jennings RW, LaQuaglia MP, Leong K, et al.: Fetal neuroblastoma: prenatal diagnosis and natural history. J Pediatr Surg 28 (9): 1168-74, 1993.
3. Maris JM, Mosse YP, Bradfield JP, et al.: Chromosome 6p22 locus associated with clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 358 (24): 2585-93, 2008.
4. Satgé D, Moore SW, Stiller CA, et al.: Abnormal constitutional karyotypes in patients with neuroblastoma: a report of four new cases and review of 47 others in the literature. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 147 (2): 89-98, 2003.
5. Mosse Y, Greshock J, King A, et al.: Identification and high-resolution mapping of a constitutional 11q deletion in an infant with multifocal neuroblastoma. Lancet Oncol 4 (12): 769-71, 2003.
6. Mossé YP, Laudenslager M, Longo L, et al.: Identification of ALK as a major familial neuroblastoma predisposition gene. Nature 455 (7215): 930-5, 2008.
7. George RE, Sanda T, Hanna M, et al.: Activating mutations in ALK provide a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Nature 455 (7215): 975-8, 2008.
8. Mosse YP, Laudenslager M, Khazi D, et al.: Germline PHOX2B mutation in hereditary neuroblastoma. Am J Hum Genet 75 (4): 727-30, 2004.
9. Mahoney NR, Liu GT, Menacker SJ, et al.: Pediatric horner syndrome: etiologies and roles of imaging and urine studies to detect neuroblastoma and other responsible mass lesions. Am J Ophthalmol 142 (4): 651-9, 2006.
10. Hiyama E, Yokoyama T, Hiyama K, et al.: Multifocal neuroblastoma: biologic behavior and surgical aspects. Cancer 88 (8): 1955-63, 2000.
11. Citak C, Karadeniz C, Dalgic B, et al.: Intestinal lymphangiectasia as a first manifestation of neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 46 (1): 105-7, 2006.
12. Bourdeaut F, de Carli E, Timsit S, et al.: VIP hypersecretion as primary or secondary syndrome in neuroblastoma: A retrospective study by the Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant (SFCE). Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (5): 585-90, 2009.
13. Matthay KK, Blaes F, Hero B, et al.: Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome in neuroblastoma a report from a workshop on the dancing eyes syndrome at the advances in neuroblastoma meeting in Genoa, Italy, 2004. Cancer Lett 228 (1-2): 275-82, 2005.
14. Rudnick E, Khakoo Y, Antunes NL, et al.: Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome in neuroblastoma: clinical outcome and antineuronal antibodies-a report from the Children's Cancer Group Study. Med Pediatr Oncol 36 (6): 612-22, 2001.
15. Pranzatelli MR: The neurobiology of the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol 15 (3): 186-228, 1992.
16. Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, et al.: Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by childhood neuroblastoma: developmental and neurologic sequelae. Pediatrics 109 (1): 86-98, 2002.
17. Connolly AM, Pestronk A, Mehta S, et al.: Serum autoantibodies in childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: an analysis of antigenic targets in neural tissues. J Pediatr 130 (6): 878-84, 1997.
18. Cooper R, Khakoo Y, Matthay KK, et al.: Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome in neuroblastoma: histopathologic features-a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 36 (6): 623-9, 2001.
19. Russo C, Cohn SL, Petruzzi MJ, et al.: Long-term neurologic outcome in children with opsoclonus-myoclonus associated with neuroblastoma: a report from the Pediatric Oncology Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 28 (4): 284-8, 1997.
20. Bell J, Moran C, Blatt J: Response to rituximab in a child with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (2): 370-1, 2008.
21. Corapcioglu F, Mutlu H, Kara B, et al.: Response to rituximab and prednisolone for opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome in a child with ganglioneuroblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (8): 756-61, 2008.
22. Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F, et al.: Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11 (8): 1466-77, 1993.
23. Adams GA, Shochat SJ, Smith EI, et al.: Thoracic neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Pediatr Surg 28 (3): 372-7; discussion 377-8, 1993.
24. Evans AE, Albo V, D'Angio GJ, et al.: Factors influencing survival of children with nonmetastatic neuroblastoma. Cancer 38 (2): 661-6, 1976.
25. Hayes FA, Green A, Hustu HO, et al.: Surgicopathologic staging of neuroblastoma: prognostic significance of regional lymph node metastases. J Pediatr 102 (1): 59-62, 1983.
26. Cotterill SJ, Pearson AD, Pritchard J, et al.: Clinical prognostic factors in 1277 patients with neuroblastoma: results of The European Neuroblastoma Study Group 'Survey' 1982-1992. Eur J Cancer 36 (7): 901-8, 2000.
27. Horner MJ, Ries LA, Krapcho M, et al.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2006. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2009. Also available online. Last accessed October 7, 2009.
28. Brodeur GM, Azar C, Brother M, et al.: Neuroblastoma. Effect of genetic factors on prognosis and treatment. Cancer 70 (6 Suppl): 1685-94, 1992.
29. Isaacs H Jr: Fetal and neonatal neuroblastoma: retrospective review of 271 cases. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 26 (4): 177-84, 2007 Jul-Aug.
30. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al.: Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341 (16): 1165-73, 1999.
31. Conte M, Parodi S, De Bernardi B, et al.: Neuroblastoma in adolescents: the Italian experience. Cancer 106 (6): 1409-17, 2006.
32. Kushner BH, Kramer K, LaQuaglia MP, et al.: Neuroblastoma in adolescents and adults: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience. Med Pediatr Oncol 41 (6): 508-15, 2003.
33. Franks LM, Bollen A, Seeger RC, et al.: Neuroblastoma in adults and adolescents: an indolent course with poor survival. Cancer 79 (10): 2028-35, 1997.
34. Riley RD, Heney D, Jones DR, et al.: A systematic review of molecular and biological tumor markers in neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 10 (1 Pt 1): 4-12, 2004.
35. Look AT, Hayes FA, Shuster JJ, et al.: Clinical relevance of tumor cell ploidy and N-myc gene amplification in childhood neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 9 (4): 581-91, 1991.
36. Schmidt ML, Lukens JN, Seeger RC, et al.: Biologic factors determine prognosis in infants with stage IV neuroblastoma: A prospective Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (6): 1260-8, 2000.
37. Berthold F, Trechow R, Utsch S, et al.: Prognostic factors in metastatic neuroblastoma. A multivariate analysis of 182 cases. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 14 (3): 207-15, 1992.
38. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC, et al.: Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1256-64, 1998.
39. Attiyeh EF, London WB, Mossé YP, et al.: Chromosome 1p and 11q deletions and outcome in neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 353 (21): 2243-53, 2005.
40. Spitz R, Hero B, Simon T, et al.: Loss in chromosome 11q identifies tumors with increased risk for metastatic relapses in localized and 4S neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 12 (11 Pt 1): 3368-73, 2006.
41. Ambros PF, Ambros IM, Brodeur GM, et al.: International consensus for neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics: report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Biology Committee. Br J Cancer 100 (9): 1471-82, 2009.
42. Bown N, Cotterill S, Lastowska M, et al.: Gain of chromosome arm 17q and adverse outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 340 (25): 1954-61, 1999.
43. Cohn SL, London WB, Huang D, et al.: MYCN expression is not prognostic of adverse outcome in advanced-stage neuroblastoma with nonamplified MYCN. J Clin Oncol 18 (21): 3604-13, 2000.
44. Fredlund E, Ringnér M, Maris JM, et al.: High Myc pathway activity and low stage of neuronal differentiation associate with poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 (37): 14094-9, 2008.
45. Poremba C, Hero B, Goertz HG, et al.: Traditional and emerging molecular markers in neuroblastoma prognosis: the good, the bad and the ugly. Klin Padiatr 213 (4): 186-90, 2001 Jul-Aug.
46. Ohali A, Avigad S, Ash S, et al.: Telomere length is a prognostic factor in neuroblastoma. Cancer 107 (6): 1391-9, 2006.
47. Strenger V, Kerbl R, Dornbusch HJ, et al.: Diagnostic and prognostic impact of urinary catecholamines in neuroblastoma patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48 (5): 504-9, 2007.
48. Haber M, Smith J, Bordow SB, et al.: Association of high-level MRP1 expression with poor clinical outcome in a large prospective study of primary neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 24 (10): 1546-53, 2006.
49. Roberts SS, Mori M, Pattee P, et al.: GABAergic system gene expression predicts clinical outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 22 (20): 4127-34, 2004.
50. Wei JS, Greer BT, Westermann F, et al.: Prediction of clinical outcome using gene expression profiling and artificial neural networks for patients with neuroblastoma. Cancer Res 64 (19): 6883-91, 2004.
51. Janoueix-Lerosey I, Schleiermacher G, Michels E, et al.: Overall genomic pattern is a predictor of outcome in neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 27 (7): 1026-33, 2009.
52. Burchill SA, Lewis IJ, Abrams KR, et al.: Circulating neuroblastoma cells detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA are an independent poor prognostic indicator in stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year. J Clin Oncol 19 (6): 1795-801, 2001.
53. Seeger RC, Reynolds CP, Gallego R, et al.: Quantitative tumor cell content of bone marrow and blood as a predictor of outcome in stage IV neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 18 (24): 4067-76, 2000.
54. Maris JM, Matthay KK: Molecular biology of neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 17 (7): 2264-79, 1999.
55. Lastowska M, Cullinane C, Variend S, et al.: Comprehensive genetic and histopathologic study reveals three types of neuroblastoma tumors. J Clin Oncol 19 (12): 3080-90, 2001.
56. Sawada T: Past and future of neuroblastoma screening in Japan. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 14 (4): 320-6, 1992.
57. Takeuchi LA, Hachitanda Y, Woods WG, et al.: Screening for neuroblastoma in North America. Preliminary results of a pathology review from the Quebec Project. Cancer 76 (11): 2363-71, 1995.
58. Woods WG, Gao RN, Shuster JJ, et al.: Screening of infants and mortality due to neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 346 (14): 1041-6, 2002.
59. Schilling FH, Spix C, Berthold F, et al.: Neuroblastoma screening at one year of age. N Engl J Med 346 (14): 1047-53, 2002.
60. Nickerson HJ, Matthay KK, Seeger RC, et al.: Favorable biology and outcome of stage IV-S neuroblastoma with supportive care or minimal therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (3): 477-86, 2000.
61. Hero B, Simon T, Spitz R, et al.: Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97. J Clin Oncol 26 (9): 1504-10, 2008.
62. Reynolds CP: Ras and Seppuku in neuroblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (5): 319-21, 2002.
63. Ambros PF, Brodeur GM: Concept of tumorigenesis and regression. In: Brodeur GM, Sawada T, Tsuchida Y: Neuroblastoma. New York, NY: Elsevier Science, 2000, pp 21-32.
64. Hiyama E, Hiyama K, Yokoyama T, et al.: Correlating telomerase activity levels with human neuroblastoma outcomes. Nat Med 1 (3): 249-55, 1995.
65. Hiyama E, Reynolds CP: Telomerase as a biological and prognostic marker in neuroblastoma. In: Brodeur GM, Sawada T, Tsuchida Y: Neuroblastoma. New York, NY: Elsevier Science, 2000, pp 159-174.
66. Kitanaka C, Kato K, Ijiri R, et al.: Increased Ras expression and caspase-independent neuroblastoma cell death: possible mechanism of spontaneous neuroblastoma regression. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (5): 358-68, 2002.
67. Yamamoto K, Ohta S, Ito E, et al.: Marginal decrease in mortality and marked increase in incidence as a result of neuroblastoma screening at 6 months of age: cohort study in seven prefectures in Japan. J Clin Oncol 20 (5): 1209-14, 2002.
68. Okazaki T, Kohno S, Mimaya J, et al.: Neuroblastoma detected by mass screening: the Tumor Board's role in its treatment. Pediatr Surg Int 20 (1): 27-32, 2004.
69. Fritsch P, Kerbl R, Lackner H, et al.: "Wait and see" strategy in localized neuroblastoma in infants: an option not only for cases detected by mass screening. Pediatr Blood Cancer 43 (6): 679-82, 2004.

Cellular Classification

The International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification (INPC) system involves evaluation of tumor specimens obtained prior to therapy for the amount of stromal development, the degree of neuroblastic maturation, and the mitosis-karyorrhexis index of the neuroblastic cells.[1,2,3,4] Favorable and unfavorable prognoses are defined on the bases of these histologic parameters. The prognostic significance of this classification system, and of related systems using similar criteria, has been confirmed in several studies.[1,2,3] Neuroblastoma containing many differentiating cells, termed ganglioneuroblastoma, can have nodules of undifferentiated cells whose histology, along with MYCN amplification, determines prognosis.[4,5] About 25% of reported neuroblastomas diagnosed in the fetus and neonate are cystic; cystic neuroblastomas have lower stages and a higher incidence of favorable biology.[6]

References:

1. Shimada H, Ambros IM, Dehner LP, et al.: The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (the Shimada system). Cancer 86 (2): 364-72, 1999.
2. Shimada H, Umehara S, Monobe Y, et al.: International neuroblastoma pathology classification for prognostic evaluation of patients with peripheral neuroblastic tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Cancer 92 (9): 2451-61, 2001.
3. Goto S, Umehara S, Gerbing RB, et al.: Histopathology (International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification) and MYCN status in patients with peripheral neuroblastic tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Cancer 92 (10): 2699-708, 2001.
4. Peuchmaur M, d'Amore ES, Joshi VV, et al.: Revision of the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification: confirmation of favorable and unfavorable prognostic subsets in ganglioneuroblastoma, nodular. Cancer 98 (10): 2274-81, 2003.
5. Kubota M, Suita S, Tajiri T, et al.: Analysis of the prognostic factors relating to better clinical outcome in ganglioneuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 35 (1): 92-5, 2000.
6. Isaacs H Jr: Fetal and neonatal neuroblastoma: retrospective review of 271 cases. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 26 (4): 177-84, 2007 Jul-Aug.

Stage Information

The treatment section of this document is organized to correspond with the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk-based schema for the treatment of neuroblastoma. This schema is based on three factors: patient age at diagnosis, certain biological characteristics of the patient's neuroblastoma tumor, and the stage of the tumor as defined by the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS). The INSS has replaced the previously used Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) staging systems. The INSS is described below, and the COG risk-based treatment schema is described in Table 1 in this section.

A thorough evaluation for metastatic disease should be performed prior to therapy initiation. The following investigations are recommended:[1]

1. Bone marrow should be assessed by bilateral posterior iliac crest marrow aspirates and trephine (core) bone marrow biopsies to exclude bone marrow involvement. To be considered adequate, core biopsy specimens must contain at least 1 cm of marrow, excluding cartilage. Bone marrow sampling may not be necessary for tumors that are otherwise stage 1.[2]
2. Bone should be assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan, which is applicable to all sites of disease, and by technetium 99 scan if the results of the MIBG scan are negative or unavailable.[3] Plain radiographs of positive lesions are recommended.
3. Palpable lymph nodes should be clinically examined and histologically confirmed if indicated for staging.[1]
4. The abdomen and liver should be assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound is considered suboptimal for accurate 3D measurements. If extension of abdominal disease or pulmonary metastasis is suspected, the chest should be examined by CT scan.
5. Lumbar puncture should be avoided as central nervous system (CNS) metastasis at diagnosis is rare,[4] and lumbar puncture may be associated with an increased incidence of subsequent development of CNS metastasis.[5]
6. Paraspinal tumors may extend through neural foramina to compress the spinal cord. Therefore, MRI of the spine adjacent to any paraspinal tumor is recommended.

International Neuroblastoma Staging System

INSS combines certain features of the previously used POG and CCG systems [1,6] and has identified distinct prognostic groups.[1,6,7,8]

  • STAGE 1: Localized tumor with complete gross excision, with or without microscopic residual disease; representative ipsilateral lymph nodes negative for tumor microscopically (i.e., nodes attached to and removed with the primary tumor may be positive).
  • STAGE 2A: Localized tumor with incomplete gross excision; representative ipsilateral nonadherent lymph nodes negative for tumor microscopically.
  • STAGE 2B: Localized tumor with or without complete gross excision, with ipsilateral nonadherent lymph nodes positive for tumor. Enlarged contralateral lymph nodes must be negative microscopically.
  • STAGE 3: Unresectable unilateral tumor infiltrating across the midline, with or without regional lymph node involvement; or localized unilateral tumor with contralateral regional lymph node involvement; or midline tumor with bilateral extension by infiltration (unresectable) or by lymph node involvement. The midline is defined as the vertebral column. Tumors originating on one side and crossing the midline must infiltrate to or beyond the opposite side of the vertebral column.
  • STAGE 4: Any primary tumor with dissemination to distant lymph nodes, bone, bone marrow, liver, skin, and/or other organs, except as defined for stage 4S.
  • STAGE 4S: Localized primary tumor, as defined for stage 1, 2A, or 2B, with dissemination limited to skin, liver, and/or bone marrow (limited to infants younger than 1 year). Marrow involvement should be minimal (i.e., <10% of total nucleated cells identified as malignant by bone biopsy or by bone marrow aspirate). More extensive bone marrow involvement would be considered stage 4 disease. The results of the MIBG scan, if performed, should be negative for disease in the bone marrow.

Children's Oncology Group Neuroblastoma Risk Grouping

In North America, the COG investigated a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigned all patients to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group based on age, INSS stage, and tumor biology. The relevant biological attributes of the tumor included MYCN status, International Neuroblastoma Pathologic Classification (INPC) histopathology classification, and tumor DNA index. The low-risk group was observed without further treatment unless the patient had life- or organ-threatening tumors. The intermediate-risk group received limited chemotherapy, additional surgery in some instances, and avoided radiation therapy. This study involved an overall reduction in treatment compared to prior treatment plans.[9] The high-risk group was treated with aggressive chemotherapy, second-look surgery, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue, radiation therapy, and cis -retinoic acid. The outcome for the low- and intermediate-risk groups combined was an event-free survival and overall 3-year survival of 88% and 96%, respectively. There was no unexpected toxicity.[9] These studies (COG-P9641 and COG-A3961) have established a new standard of care for children in North America with neuroblastoma.

Some controversies exist regarding the treatment of several small subsets of patients and the INSS staging system;[10,11,12] risk group assignment and recommended treatment are expected to mature as additional outcome data are analyzed. For example, the risk group for INSS stage 4, including patients aged 12 to 18 months was changed for patients with MYCN-nonamplified status in 2005.[13,14,15] Table 1 describes the risk group assignment criteria used to assign treatment in these studies.

Table 1. Children's Oncology Group Neuroblastoma Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Risk Group Assignment Schema Used for COG-9641 and COG-A3961 Studiesa

a The COG-9641 and COG-A3961 trials established the current standard of care for neuroblastoma patients in terms of risk group assignment and treatment strategies.
b DNA Ploidy: DNA Index (DI) > 1 is favorable, = 1 is unfavorable; hypodiploid tumors (with DI < 1) will be treated as a tumor with a DI > 1 (DI < 1 [hypodiploid] to be considered favorable ploidy).
c INSS stage 2A/2B symptomatic patients with spinal cord compression, neurologic deficits, or other symptoms should be treated with immediate chemotherapy for four cycles.
d INSS stage 3 or stage 4 patients with clinical symptoms as listed above should receive immediate chemotherapy.
e INSS stage 4S infants with favorable biology and clinical symptoms should be treated with immediate chemotherapy until asymptomatic (2–4 cycles). Clinical symptoms include: respiratory distress with or without hepatomegaly or cord compression and neurologic deficit or inferior vena cava compression and renal ischemia; or genitourinary obstruction; or gastrointestinal obstruction and vomiting; or coagulopathy with significant clinical hemorrhage unresponsiveeplacement therapy.
INSS Stage Age MYCN Status INPC Classification DNA Ploidyb Risk Group
1 0–21 y Any Any Any Low
2A/2Bc <365 d Any Any Any Low
=365 d–21 y Nonamplified Any - Low
=365 d–21 y Amplified Favorable - Low
=365 d–21 y Amplified Unfavorable - High
3d <365 d Nonamplified Any Any Intermediate
<365 d Amplified Any Any High
=365 d–21 y Nonamplified Favorable - Intermediate
=365 d–21 y Nonamplified Unfavorable - High
=365 d–21 y Amplified Any - High
4d <548 d [13,14,15] Nonamplified Any Any Intermediate
< 365 d Amplified Any Any High
=548 d–21 y Any Any - High
4Se <365 d Nonamplified Favorable >1 Low
  <365 d Nonamplified Any =1 Intermediate
  <365 d Nonamplified Unfavorable Any Intermediate
  <365 d Amplified Any Any High

References:

1. Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F, et al.: Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11 (8): 1466-77, 1993.
2. Russell HV, Golding LA, Suell MN, et al.: The role of bone marrow evaluation in the staging of patients with otherwise localized, low-risk neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45 (7): 916-9, 2005.
3. Vik TA, Pfluger T, Kadota R, et al.: (123)I-mIBG scintigraphy in patients with known or suspected neuroblastoma: Results from a prospective multicenter trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (7): 784-90, 2009.
4. DuBois SG, Kalika Y, Lukens JN, et al.: Metastatic sites in stage IV and IVS neuroblastoma correlate with age, tumor biology, and survival. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21 (3): 181-9, 1999 May-Jun.
5. Kramer K, Kushner B, Heller G, et al.: Neuroblastoma metastatic to the central nervous system. The Memorial Sloan-kettering Cancer Center Experience and A Literature Review. Cancer 91 (8): 1510-9, 2001.
6. Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Barrett A, et al.: International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 6 (12): 1874-81, 1988.
7. Castleberry RP, Shuster JJ, Smith EI: The Pediatric Oncology Group experience with the international staging system criteria for neuroblastoma. Member Institutions of the Pediatric Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 12 (11): 2378-81, 1994.
8. Ikeda H, Iehara T, Tsuchida Y, et al.: Experience with International Neuroblastoma Staging System and Pathology Classification. Br J Cancer 86 (7): 1110-6, 2002.
9. Baker DL, Schmidt M, Cohn S, et al.: A phase III trial of biologically-based therapy reduction for intermediate risk neuroblastoma. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 25 (Suppl 18): A-9504, 2007.
10. Kushner BH, Cheung NK: Treatment reduction for neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 43 (6): 619-21, 2004.
11. Kushner BH, Kramer K, LaQuaglia MP, et al.: Liver involvement in neuroblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience supports treatment reduction in young patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 46 (3): 278-84, 2006.
12. Navarro S, Amann G, Beiske K, et al.: Prognostic value of International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification in localized resectable peripheral neuroblastic tumors: a histopathologic study of localized neuroblastoma European Study Group 94.01 Trial and Protocol. J Clin Oncol 24 (4): 695-9, 2006.
13. Schmidt ML, Lal A, Seeger RC, et al.: Favorable prognosis for patients 12 to 18 months of age with stage 4 nonamplified MYCN neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6474-80, 2005.
14. London WB, Castleberry RP, Matthay KK, et al.: Evidence for an age cutoff greater than 365 days for neuroblastoma risk group stratification in the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6459-65, 2005.
15. George RE, London WB, Cohn SL, et al.: Hyperdiploidy plus nonamplified MYCN confers a favorable prognosis in children 12 to 18 months old with disseminated neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6466-73, 2005.

Treatment Option Overview

The treatments described in this summary are based on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) group assignment, which is described in the Stage Information section of this summary. Treatment information is presented in this format because most children with neuroblastoma in North America are treated according to the COG schema. The prior COG risk-based neuroblastoma studies established the standard of care. They assigned each patient to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group and the basis of the assignment is described in Table 1. The current COG study of intermediate-risk neuroblastoma is evaluating whether the duration of chemotherapy can safely be reduced and assigns low- and intermediate-risk patients to four different treatment groups and is described in Table 2 in the Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma section of the summary. To define the risk groups, the risk of progression of the tumor causing morbidity and mortality is gauged based on the stage of the tumor, the age of the child at diagnosis, and tumor biology. The biological features considered are the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) system, amplification of the MYCN gene, and the number of chromosomes in tumor cells (measured as the DNA index by flow cytometry).

In patients without metastatic disease, the standard of care is to perform an initial surgery to establish the diagnosis, to resect as much of the primary tumor as is safely possible, to accurately stage disease through sampling of regional lymph nodes that are not adherent to the tumor, and to obtain adequate tissue for biological studies. Accurate determination of biological characteristics, such as INPC system, usually requires an open biopsy. The accuracy of diagnosis and staging is increased by performing a metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan.[1] Urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) per mg of excreted creatinine should be measured prior to therapy. If elevated, these markers can be used to determine the persistence of disease.

There is controversy about the need for immediate diagnostic biopsy in infants aged 3 months and younger with suspected neuroblastoma tumors that are likely to spontaneously regress. Biopsy is not required for infants entered into a COG study of expectant observation of adrenal masses in neonates. In a German clinical trial, 25 infants aged 3 months and younger with presumed neuroblastoma were observed without biopsy for periods of 1 to 18 months prior to biopsy or resection. There were no apparent ill effects of the delay.[2] In the current COG trial (COG-ANBL0531), infants with severely symptomatic apparent stage 4S neuroblastoma may be entered on trial and treated without diagnostic biopsy.

There is also controversy about the need for attempted resection, whether at the time of diagnosis or later, in asymptomatic infants aged 12 months or younger with apparent stage 2B and 3 MYCN-nonamplified disease. In a German clinical trial, some of these patients were observed after biopsy or partial resection without chemotherapy or radiation, and many did not progress locally and never received additional resection.[2]

Low-Risk Neuroblastoma

Treatment for patients categorized as low risk (refer to Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary) may be surgery alone, but surgery may be combined with chemotherapy in some cases. Chemotherapy is reserved for patients who are symptomatic, such as from spinal cord compression or, in stage 4S, respiratory compromise secondary to hepatic infiltration. The chemotherapy consists of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen (COG-P9641, COG-ANBL00B1, and COG-ANBL0531).

Observation without surgery for localized, suspected adrenal neuroblastoma in infants

Studies suggest that selected presumed neuroblastomas detected in infants by screening or incidental ultrasound may safely be observed without obtaining a definitive histologic diagnosis and without surgical intervention, thus avoiding potential complications of surgery in the newborn.[3,4,5] The experience with tumors detected by mass urinary catecholamine metabolite screening in Japan appears to be applicable to tumors detected by prenatal or perinatal ultrasound in the United States.[3] The COG is currently investigating systematic observation without surgery for infants with presumed small Evans stage I adrenal neuroblastoma detected by prenatal or perinatal ultrasound.

Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

Patients categorized as intermediate risk (refer to Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary) have been successfully treated with surgery and 12 to 24 weeks of the same chemotherapy regimen described above (COG-A3961). As a rule, patients whose tumors have unfavorable biology receive twice as many cycles of chemotherapy as those with favorable biology.

Whether initial chemotherapy is indicated for all intermediate-risk infants with localized neuroblastoma is controversial. In a German clinical trial of infants with stages 2A, 2B, and stage 3 disease and MYCN-nonamplified tumors that were not readily resectable with low-risk surgery, children were treated with chemotherapy only if symptoms developed or if tumor progression occurred, 82 of 93 infants avoided any chemotherapy and 34 avoided further surgery. This was due, in part, to spontaneous tumor regression. Overall survival was 99%.[2] In North America, the standard practice is to treat infants with unresectable stages 2A, 2B, and stage 3 neuroblastoma with chemotherapy at diagnosis.

High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In contrast, patients categorized as high risk (refer to Table 1 of the Stage Information section of the summary) are generally treated with dose-intensive multiagent chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above but often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. After a response to chemotherapy, resection of the primary tumor should be attempted, followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Radiation of residual tumor and original sites of metastases is often performed before, during, or after myeloablative therapy. After recovery, patients are treated with oral 13-cis -retinoic acid for 6 months. Both myeloablative therapy and retinoic acid improve outcome in patients categorized as high risk.[6,7,8][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Compared to retinoic acid alone, chimeric anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18 combined with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 and given in concert with retinoic acid improves EFS for high-risk neuroblastoma patients in remission after stem cell transplant.[abstract]

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy for patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma in the current COG treatment plan (COG-ANBL0531) is reserved for symptomatic life-threatening or organ-threatening tumor bulk that does not respond rapidly enough to chemotherapy. The common situations where radiation is used in these patients include: 1) infants aged 60 days and younger with stage 4S and marked respiratory compromise from liver metastases that has not responded to chemotherapy, or 2) for symptomatic spinal cord compression that has not responded to initial chemotherapy and/or surgical decompression. In contrast, radiation therapy to the primary site is often recommended for high-risk patients even in cases of complete resection.

Chemotherapy

Immediate treatment should be given for symptomatic spinal cord compression. Neurologic recovery is more likely the less the severity of compromise and the shorter the duration of symptoms. Neurologic outcome appears to be similar whether cord compression is treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or laminectomy. Laminectomy, however, may result in later scoliosis, and chemotherapy is often needed whether or not surgery or radiation is used.[9,10,11] The current COG neuroblastoma treatment plans recommend immediate chemotherapy for cord compression in patients classified as low or intermediate risk (COG-ANBL0531). Children with neuroblastoma whose spinal cord compression worsens on medical therapy may benefit from surgical intervention.[12]

Description of International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria

In order to stop therapy after the initially planned number of cycles, certain response criteria, depending on treatment group, must be met. These criteria are defined below:[13,14]

  • Complete Response (CR): Total disappearance of tumor, with no evidence of disease. VMA/HVA are normal.
  • Very Good Partial Response (VGPR): Primary tumor has decreased by 90% to 99%, and no evidence of metastatic disease. Urine VMA/HVA are normal. Residual bone scan changes are allowed.
  • Partial Response (PR): 50% to 90% decrease in the size of all measurable lesions; the number of bone scan positive sites is decreased by greater than 50% and no new lesions are present; no more than one positive bone marrow site allowed if this represents a reduction in the number of sites originally positive for tumor at diagnosis.
  • Mixed Response (MR): No new lesions, 50% to 90% reduction of any measurable lesion (primary or metastatic) with less than 50% reduction in other lesions and less than 25% increase in any lesion.
  • No Response (NR) or Stable Disease (SD): No new lesions; less than 50% reduction and less than 25% increase in any lesion.
  • Progressive Disease (PD): Any new lesion; increase in any measurable lesion by greater than 25%; previous negative bone marrow now positive for tumor. Neither persistent elevation in urinary VMA/HVA with stable disease nor an increase in VMA/HVA without clinical or radiographic evidence of progression indicate progressive disease, but does warrant continued follow-up. Care should be taken in interpreting the development of metastatic disease in an infant who was initially considered to have stage 1 or 2 disease. If the pattern of metastases in such a patient is consistent with a 4S pattern of disease (skin, liver, bone marrow less than 10% involved) these patients should not be classified as progressive/metastatic disease, which would be a criteria for removal from protocol therapy. Instead, these patients should be managed as stage 4S.

Surveillance for Recurrence of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

Surveillance studies during and following treatment are able to detect asymptomatic and unsuspected relapse in a substantial portion of patients. As an element in an overall surveillance plan, the most reliable test to detect disease progression or recurrence is the 123 I-MIBG scan.[15]

References:

1. Vik TA, Pfluger T, Kadota R, et al.: (123)I-mIBG scintigraphy in patients with known or suspected neuroblastoma: Results from a prospective multicenter trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (7): 784-90, 2009.
2. Hero B, Simon T, Spitz R, et al.: Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97. J Clin Oncol 26 (9): 1504-10, 2008.
3. Nishihira H, Toyoda Y, Tanaka Y, et al.: Natural course of neuroblastoma detected by mass screening: s 5-year prospective study at a single institution. J Clin Oncol 18 (16): 3012-7, 2000.
4. Holgersen LO, Subramanian S, Kirpekar M, et al.: Spontaneous resolution of antenatally diagnosed adrenal masses. J Pediatr Surg 31 (1): 153-5, 1996.
5. Fritsch P, Kerbl R, Lackner H, et al.: "Wait and see" strategy in localized neuroblastoma in infants: an option not only for cases detected by mass screening. Pediatr Blood Cancer 43 (6): 679-82, 2004.
6. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al.: Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341 (16): 1165-73, 1999.
7. Berthold F, Boos J, Burdach S, et al.: Myeloablative megatherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue versus oral maintenance chemotherapy as consolidation treatment in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 6 (9): 649-58, 2005.
8. Matthay KK, Reynolds CP, Seeger RC, et al.: Long-term results for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated on a randomized trial of myeloablative therapy followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid: a children's oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 27 (7): 1007-13, 2009.
9. Katzenstein HM, Kent PM, London WB, et al.: Treatment and outcome of 83 children with intraspinal neuroblastoma: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience. J Clin Oncol 19 (4): 1047-55, 2001.
10. De Bernardi B, Pianca C, Pistamiglio P, et al.: Neuroblastoma with symptomatic spinal cord compression at diagnosis: treatment and results with 76 cases. J Clin Oncol 19 (1): 183-90, 2001.
11. Plantaz D, Rubie H, Michon J, et al.: The treatment of neuroblastoma with intraspinal extension with chemotherapy followed by surgical removal of residual disease. A prospective study of 42 patients--results of the NBL 90 Study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. Cancer 78 (2): 311-9, 1996.
12. Sandberg DI, Bilsky MH, Kushner BH, et al.: Treatment of spinal involvement in neuroblastoma patients. Pediatr Neurosurg 39 (6): 291-8, 2003.
13. Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F, et al.: Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11 (8): 1466-77, 1993.
14. Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Barrett A, et al.: International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 6 (12): 1874-81, 1988.
15. Kushner BH, Kramer K, Modak S, et al.: Sensitivity of surveillance studies for detecting asymptomatic and unsuspected relapse of high-risk neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 27 (7): 1041-6, 2009.

Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma

Standard Treatment Options

In North America, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) investigated a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigned all patients to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group based on age, International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage, and tumor biology (i.e., MYCN gene amplification, International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) system, and DNA index). The low-risk group was observed without further treatment in most cases. Chemotherapy was given for four cycles (12 weeks) to treat patients with life- or organ-threatening neuroblastoma. (Risk Groups are defined in Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary.)

Patients with low-risk neuroblastoma have a cure rate higher than 90%.[1,2,3,4,5]

Studies suggest that selected presumed neuroblastomas detected in infants by screening may be safely observed without surgical intervention and without pathologic diagnosis.[6,7] The COG is investigating systematic observation without diagnostic surgery for selected infants with presumed INSS stage 1 adrenal neuroblastoma detected by prenatal or perinatal ultrasound (COG-ANBL00P2). There is some controversy whether additional surgical resection should be attempted in infants with localized MYCN-nonamplified tumors after biopsy or partial resection. A German clinical trial observed a group of these patients and some infants did not require further intervention, in part due to spontaneous regression.[8]

The treatment of children with low-risk stage 4S disease is dependent on clinical presentation.[9,10] Children who are clinically stable with this special pattern of neuroblastoma may not require therapy. The development of complications, such as functional compromise from massive hepatomegaly, is an indication for intervention, especially in infants younger than 2 to 3 months.[9,11,12] In a study of 80 infants with 4S disease, those who were asymptomatic had 100% survival with supportive care only, and patients with symptoms had an 81% survival rate when they received low-dose chemotherapy.[11] Resection of primary tumor is not associated with improved outcome.[9,10,11]

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following are examples of national and/or institutional clinical trial that are currently being conducted. For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site.

  • COG-ANBL00P2: This COG trial is for infants aged 6 months and older when the tumor was first diagnosed who have a radiologically stage 1 adrenal mass studied by MIBG scan and either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Treatment is expectant observation without diagnostic biopsy.
  • COG-ANBL0531 and COG-ANBL00B1 (described together): A new risk group classification system has been developed for the current COG study (see Table 2 in the Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma section of the summary). Patients previously classified as low risk are now in treatment Group 1 or Group 2. The following tumors are classified as risk and treatment Group 1 (see Table 2). They are treated with surgery followed by observation. Chemotherapy is recommended only for life-threatening or organ-threatening symptoms that cannot be relieved by safe surgical resection of the mass. Life-threatening or organ-threatening symptoms include respiratory distress, renal or bowel ischemia, spinal cord compression, gastrointestinal or genitourinary obstruction, and coagulopathy.
    • Some patients categorized as low risk on previous studies were treated with up to four cycles of intermediate risk chemotherapy and are classified as risk and treatment Group 2 in the current study. They are treated with surgery followed by two cycles of chemotherapy, and if needed additional cycles of chemotherapy until partial response is obtained. If the tumor has 1p or 11q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or the LOH studies are not performed, the patient will be in treatment Group 3 and receive four cycles of chemotherapy:
    • Chemotherapy is given for two cycles (6 weeks) and consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen (COG-P9641 and COG-A3961). Radiation therapy is reserved for patients with symptomatic life-threatening or organ-threatening tumor that does not respond rapidly enough to chemotherapy and/or surgery.

Table 2. COG Risk/Treatment Group Assignments for Children Aged 0 to 12 Years for the ANBL00B1 and ANBL0531 trials

DI = DNA index ; FH = Favorable histology; UH = Unfavorable histology
a If tumor contains chromosomal 1p loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or unbalanced (unb)-11q LOH, or if LOH data are missing, treatment assignment is upgraded to the next Group. Adapted from COG-ANBL0531 protocol.
INSS Stage and Risk Group Treatment Assignment Age Biology
GROUP 1: OBSERVATION    
Stage 1 0–30 y Any
Stage 2A/2B = 50% resected 0–30 y MYCN-NA; Any histology or DI
Stage 4S <365 d MYCN-NA; FH; DI >1
GROUP 2: 2 CYCLES (CHEMOTHERAPY)    
Stage 2A/2B < 50% resected or biopsy only 0–12 y MYCN-NA; Any histology or DIa
Stage 3 <365 d MYCN-NA; FH; DI > 1a
Stage 3 =365 d–12 y MYCN-NA; FHa
Stage 4S (Symptomatic) <365 d MYCN-NA; FH; DI > 1a
GROUP 3: 4 CYCLES (CHEMOTHERAPY)    
Stage 3 <365 d MYCN-NA; Either DI=1 and/or UHa
Stage 4 <365 d MYCN-NA; FH; DI > 1a
Stage 4S <365 d MYCN-NA; Either UH and any DI or FH and DI =1a
GROUP 4: 8 CYCLES (CHEMOTHERAPY)    
Stage 4S <365 d Unknown biologic features
Stage 4 <365 d MYCN-NA; Either DI = 1 and/or UH
Stage 3 365 d–547 d MYCN-NA; UH; any ploidy
Stage 4 365 d–547 d MYCN-NA; FH; DI >1

The prior and current COG neuroblastoma treatment plans also define the treatment for progression or recurrence of low-risk neuroblastoma. The treatment is dependent on the characteristics of the progression or recurrence. (Refer to the Recurrent Neuroblastoma section of this summary for more information.)

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with neuroblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

1. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC, et al.: Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1256-64, 1998.
2. Hayes FA, Green A, Hustu HO, et al.: Surgicopathologic staging of neuroblastoma: prognostic significance of regional lymph node metastases. J Pediatr 102 (1): 59-62, 1983.
3. Evans AR, Brand W, de Lorimier A, et al.: Results in children with local and regional neuroblastoma managed with and without vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and imidazolecarboxamide. A report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Am J Clin Oncol 7 (1): 3-7, 1984.
4. Alvarado CS, London WB, Look AT, et al.: Natural history and biology of stage A neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 22 (3): 197-205, 2000 May-Jun.
5. Perez CA, Matthay KK, Atkinson JB, et al.: Biologic variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a children's cancer group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (1): 18-26, 2000.
6. Nishihira H, Toyoda Y, Tanaka Y, et al.: Natural course of neuroblastoma detected by mass screening: s 5-year prospective study at a single institution. J Clin Oncol 18 (16): 3012-7, 2000.
7. Holgersen LO, Subramanian S, Kirpekar M, et al.: Spontaneous resolution of antenatally diagnosed adrenal masses. J Pediatr Surg 31 (1): 153-5, 1996.
8. Hero B, Simon T, Spitz R, et al.: Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97. J Clin Oncol 26 (9): 1504-10, 2008.
9. Guglielmi M, De Bernardi B, Rizzo A, et al.: Resection of primary tumor at diagnosis in stage IV-S neuroblastoma: does it affect the clinical course? J Clin Oncol 14 (5): 1537-44, 1996.
10. Katzenstein HM, Bowman LC, Brodeur GM, et al.: Prognostic significance of age, MYCN oncogene amplification, tumor cell ploidy, and histology in 110 infants with stage D(S) neuroblastoma: the pediatric oncology group experience--a pediatric oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 16 (6): 2007-17, 1998.
11. Nickerson HJ, Matthay KK, Seeger RC, et al.: Favorable biology and outcome of stage IV-S neuroblastoma with supportive care or minimal therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (3): 477-86, 2000.
12. Hsu LL, Evans AE, D'Angio GJ: Hepatomegaly in neuroblastoma stage 4s: criteria for treatment of the vulnerable neonate. Med Pediatr Oncol 27 (6): 521-8, 1996.

Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

Standard Treatment Options

In North America, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) investigated a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigned all patients to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group based on age, International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage, and tumor biology (i.e., MYCN gene amplification, International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification [INPC] system , and DNA ploidy). The intermediate-risk group received limited chemotherapy, additional surgery in some instances, and avoided radiation therapy. This study involved an overall reduction in treatment compared to prior treatment plans. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 88% and 96%, respectively. There was no unexpected toxicity.[1] These studies (COG-P9641 and COG-A3961) have established a new standard of care for children in North America with neuroblastoma. (Risk groups are defined in Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary.)

Chemotherapy is given for four to eight cycles (12 to 24 weeks) and consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen. Radiation therapy is reserved for patients with symptomatic life-threatening or organ-threatening tumor that does not respond rapidly enough to chemotherapy and/or surgery.

There is considerable variation in outcome, and, therefore, in treatment for children with stage 3 disease (tumor involving both sides of the midline by virtue of either invasion into normal tissues or lymph node metastasis). Infants aged 1 year and younger have a greater than 80% cure rate while older children have a cure rate of 50% to 70% with current relatively intensive therapy.[2,3,4,5] In one study, those with favorable compared with unfavorable biological features (i.e., INPC and MYCN gene amplification) had EFS rates of almost 100% and about 50%, respectively.[6,7,8] In cases of abdominal neuroblastoma thought to involve the kidney, nephrectomy should not be undertaken before a trial of chemotherapy has been given.[9]

Whether initial chemotherapy is indicated for all intermediate-risk infants with localized neuroblastoma is controversial. A German prospective clinical trial enrolled 340 infants aged one year or younger whose tumors were stage 1, 2, or 3; histologically verified; and lacked amplification of MYCN. Chemotherapy was given at diagnosis to 57 infants with organs threatened by tumor. The tumor was completely resected or nearly so in 190 infants who underwent low-risk surgery. A total of 93 infants whose tumors were not resectable without high-risk surgery due to age or organ involvement were observed without chemotherapy. Further surgery was avoided in 33 infants and chemotherapy was avoided in 72 infants. Some degree of spontaneous tumor regression occurred in nearly half the infants. Overall survival of the 93 infants was 99%.[10]

Survival of patients with INSS stage 4 disease is strongly dependent on age. Children younger than 1 year at diagnosis have a good chance of long-term survival (i.e., a 5-year disease-free survival rate of 50%–80%),[11,12] with outcome particularly dependent on MYCN amplification and tumor cell ploidy (e.g., hyperdiploidy confers a favorable prognosis while diploidy predicts early treatment failure).[3,13] Infants aged18 months and younger at diagnosis with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma who do not have MYCN gene amplification are categorized as intermediate risk.[14,15,16,17] The need for chemotherapy in all asymptomatic infants with stage 4 disease is somewhat controversial.[18] An International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) trial entered 170 stage 4 and stage 4S infants aged 12 months or younger, and 14 asymptomatic infants were stage 4 based on the following: 1) metastases of the 4S pattern and including positive bone metastases by iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or technetium bone scan without cortical bone abnormality by computer tomography (CT) scan or plain x-ray, or 2) primary tumor stage 3 with 4S metastatic pattern. These infants were observed without initial chemotherapy, and in cases with surgical risk factors, without resection of the primary tumor. Although three infants underwent tumor progression, all survived. Although many were eventually treated with chemotherapy at the investigator's choice, a substantial number of infants received no chemotherapy.[18]

A small single institution study suggested that all MYCN-nonamplified (NA) INSS stage 3 tumors may be treated with surgical resection followed by observation without chemotherapy.[19][Level of evidence: 3iiDi]

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following are examples of national and/or institutional clinical trials that are currently being conducted. For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site.

  • COG-ANBL0531: This COG trial is a response- and biology-based trial for intermediate-risk neuroblastoma. The COG is studying a reduction of chemotherapy duration for most intermediate risk group patients, based in part on a reduction of the degree of tumor response required to stop chemotherapy.

    A new risk/treatment group classification system has been developed for this study and is described in Table 2 in the Treatment of Low-Risk Neuroblastoma section of this summary. Patients previously classified as intermediate risk are now in risk Groups 2, 3, or 4. Some children aged 8 to 12 months previously classified as high risk are now in intermediate-risk Group 4.

    • The risk/treatment Groups 2 and 3 are upstaged by one risk/treatment group if the tumor cannot be studied for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or if LOH of 1p or unbalanced LOH of 11q is found.
    • The treatment for intermediate-risk patients involves surgery and the chemotherapy treatment regimen described below. Radiation therapy is reserved for patients with symptomatic life-threatening or organ-threatening tumor that does not respond rapidly to chemotherapy and/or surgery.

      Chemotherapy

      • TREATMENT GROUP 2: 2 cycles of chemotherapy—stop chemotherapy when a partial response is achieved.
      • TREATMENT GROUP 3: 4 cycles of chemotherapy—stop chemotherapy when a partial response is achieved.
      • TREATMENT GROUP 4: 8 cycles of chemotherapy—stop chemotherapy when a good partial response is achieved.

      For all Groups noted above, the chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen. If needed, additional cycles of this chemotherapy regimen up to eight total are given until partial response is obtained. If the required response has not been obtained with eight cycles of the afore-mentioned chemotherapy regimen, an additional one to six cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is given.

      (Refer to the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria in the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for more information.)

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with neuroblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

1. Baker DL, Schmidt M, Cohn S, et al.: A phase III trial of biologically-based therapy reduction for intermediate risk neuroblastoma. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 25 (Suppl 18): A-9504, 2007.
2. Castleberry RP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ, et al.: Radiotherapy improves the outlook for patients older than 1 year with Pediatric Oncology Group stage C neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 9 (5): 789-95, 1991.
3. Bowman LC, Castleberry RP, Cantor A, et al.: Genetic staging of unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (5): 373-80, 1997.
4. Castleberry RP, Shuster JJ, Altshuler G, et al.: Infants with neuroblastoma and regional lymph node metastases have a favorable outlook after limited postoperative chemotherapy: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 10 (8): 1299-304, 1992.
5. West DC, Shamberger RC, Macklis RM, et al.: Stage III neuroblastoma over 1 year of age at diagnosis: improved survival with intensive multimodality therapy including multiple alkylating agents. J Clin Oncol 11 (1): 84-90, 1993.
6. Matthay KK, Perez C, Seeger RC, et al.: Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1256-64, 1998.
7. Perez CA, Matthay KK, Atkinson JB, et al.: Biologic variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a children's cancer group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (1): 18-26, 2000.
8. Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC, et al.: Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 7 (2): 236-44, 1989.
9. Shamberger RC, Smith EI, Joshi VV, et al.: The risk of nephrectomy during local control in abdominal neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 33 (2): 161-4, 1998.
10. Hero B, Simon T, Spitz R, et al.: Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97. J Clin Oncol 26 (9): 1504-10, 2008.
11. Paul SR, Tarbell NJ, Korf B, et al.: Stage IV neuroblastoma in infants. Long-term survival. Cancer 67 (6): 1493-7, 1991.
12. Bowman LC, Hancock ML, Santana VM, et al.: Impact of intensified therapy on clinical outcome in infants and children with neuroblastoma: the St Jude Children's Research Hospital experience, 1962 to 1988. J Clin Oncol 9 (9): 1599-608, 1991.
13. Look AT, Hayes FA, Shuster JJ, et al.: Clinical relevance of tumor cell ploidy and N-myc gene amplification in childhood neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 9 (4): 581-91, 1991.
14. Schmidt ML, Lukens JN, Seeger RC, et al.: Biologic factors determine prognosis in infants with stage IV neuroblastoma: A prospective Children's Cancer Group study. J Clin Oncol 18 (6): 1260-8, 2000.
15. Schmidt ML, Lal A, Seeger RC, et al.: Favorable prognosis for patients 12 to 18 months of age with stage 4 nonamplified MYCN neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6474-80, 2005.
16. London WB, Castleberry RP, Matthay KK, et al.: Evidence for an age cutoff greater than 365 days for neuroblastoma risk group stratification in the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6459-65, 2005.
17. George RE, London WB, Cohn SL, et al.: Hyperdiploidy plus nonamplified MYCN confers a favorable prognosis in children 12 to 18 months old with disseminated neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 23 (27): 6466-73, 2005.
18. De Bernardi B, Gerrard M, Boni L, et al.: Excellent outcome with reduced treatment for infants with disseminated neuroblastoma without MYCN gene amplification. J Clin Oncol 27 (7): 1034-40, 2009.
19. Modak S, Kushner BH, LaQuaglia MP, et al.: Management and outcome of stage 3 neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer 45 (1): 90-8, 2009.

Treatment of High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In North America, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) investigated a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigned all patients to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group based on age, International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage, and tumor biology (i.e., MYCN gene amplification, International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification [INPC] system, and DNA ploidy) (COG-P9611). (Low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups are defined in the Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary.)

For children with high-risk neuroblastoma, long-term survival with current treatments is about 30%. Children with aggressively treated, high-risk neuroblastoma may develop late recurrences, some more than 5 years after completion of therapy.[1,2] A randomized study was performed comparing high-dose therapy with purged autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) versus three cycles of intensive consolidation chemotherapy. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was significantly better in the HSCT arm (34%) compared with the consolidation chemotherapy arm (18%).[3] Superiority of myeloablative chemotherapy over maintenance therapy was confirmed in another study.[4] In addition, patients on this study were subsequently randomized to stop therapy or to receive 6 months of 13-cis-retinoic acid.[3] Patients who received 13-cis -retinoic acid had significantly better 3-year EFS than patients who received no maintenance therapy. This was true for all patient subgroups. The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) for patients treated with both HSCT and retinoic acid is 50% and 59%, respectively. The 10-year OS remains greater than 50%.[5] However, these patients were selected for having completed HSCT without developing progressive disease. Based on these results, clinical trials have built upon autologous HSCT and 13-cis -retinoic acid for high-risk neuroblastoma.[3]

The potential benefit of aggressive surgical approaches in high-risk patients with metastatic disease to achieve complete tumor resection, either at the time of diagnosis or following chemotherapy, has not been unequivocally demonstrated. Several studies have reported that complete resection of the primary tumor at diagnosis improved survival; however, the outcome in these patients may be more dependent on the biology of the tumor, which itself may determine resectability, than on the extent of surgical resection.[6,7,8,9,10] The use of radiation therapy to consolidate local control after surgical resection is recommended.[11]

Standard Treatment Options

Patients classified as high risk receive treatment with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high drug doses, generally termed induction. Drugs often used include cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, and topotecan. COG has completed a pilot study of induction demonstrating the feasibility of substituting two cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide for two cycles of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin.[12] After a response to chemotherapy, resection of the primary tumor should be attempted, followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and stem cell rescue (i.e., bone marrow and/or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation). Whether or not harvested stem cells should be purged of neuroblastoma cells has been studied in a randomized fashion. There was no advantage to purging.[13] Two or more sequential cycles of myeloablative chemotherapy and stem cell rescue given in a tandem fashion has been studied and feasibility was established.[6,14] It is now under clinical evaluation in COG. Radiation to the primary tumor site should be undertaken whether or not a complete excision was obtained. The optimal dose of radiation therapy has not been determined. Radiation of sites of metastatic disease is determined on an individual case basis. After recovery, patients are treated with oral 13-cis -retinoic acid for 6 months. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoic acid improve outcome in patients categorized as high risk.[3,5] For high risk patients in remission following HSCT, compared to retinoic acid alone, chimeric anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18 combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 and given in concert with retinoic acid improves EFS.[15]

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following are examples of national and/or institutional clinical trials that are currently being conducted. For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site.

  • COG-ANBL0532: The COG is currently studying, in a randomized fashion, whether two cycles of myeloablative chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation is superior to a single cycle of myeloblative chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. In addition, in the same patients in a nonrandomized fashion, they are studying whether substitution of two cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide for two cycles of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin improves outcome. Patients with residual primary tumor will also receive higher doses of radiation than previously given in COG studies.[6,14]
  • COG-ANBL0032: The COG is studying in a nonrandomized fashion the use of monoclonal antibody therapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 combined with cis -retinoic acid following chemotherapy.[15,16,17]
  • The New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy (NANT) consortium is currently studying inclusion of myelobablative doses of 131-I-MIBG with myeloablative chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation in patients with an incomplete response to induction chemotherapy (NANT-2004-06).[18,19]

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with neuroblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

1. Cotterill SJ, Pearson AD, Pritchard J, et al.: Late relapse and prognosis for neuroblastoma patients surviving 5 years or more: a report from the European Neuroblastoma Study Group "Survey". Med Pediatr Oncol 36 (1): 235-8, 2001.
2. Mertens AC, Yasui Y, Neglia JP, et al.: Late mortality experience in five-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 19 (13): 3163-72, 2001.
3. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al.: Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341 (16): 1165-73, 1999.
4. Berthold F, Boos J, Burdach S, et al.: Myeloablative megatherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue versus oral maintenance chemotherapy as consolidation treatment in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 6 (9): 649-58, 2005.
5. Matthay KK, Reynolds CP, Seeger RC, et al.: Long-term results for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated on a randomized trial of myeloablative therapy followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid: a children's oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 27 (7): 1007-13, 2009.
6. George RE, Li S, Medeiros-Nancarrow C, et al.: High-risk neuroblastoma treated with tandem autologous peripheral-blood stem cell-supported transplantation: long-term survival update. J Clin Oncol 24 (18): 2891-6, 2006.
7. DeCou JM, Bowman LC, Rao BN, et al.: Infants with metastatic neuroblastoma have improved survival with resection of the primary tumor. J Pediatr Surg 30 (7): 937-40; discussion 940-1, 1995.
8. Adkins ES, Sawin R, Gerbing RB, et al.: Efficacy of complete resection for high-risk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. J Pediatr Surg 39 (6): 931-6, 2004.
9. Castel V, Tovar JA, Costa E, et al.: The role of surgery in stage IV neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 37 (11): 1574-8, 2002.
10. La Quaglia MP, Kushner BH, Su W, et al.: The impact of gross total resection on local control and survival in high-risk neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 39 (3): 412-7; discussion 412-7, 2004.
11. Haas-Kogan DA, Swift PS, Selch M, et al.: Impact of radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: a Children's Cancer Group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56 (1): 28-39, 2003.
12. Park JR, Stewart CF, London WB, et al.: A topotecan-containing induction regimen for treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 24 (Suppl 18): A-9013, 505s, 2006.
13. Kreissman SG, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al.: A randomized phase III trial of myeloablative autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant (ASCT) for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) employing immunomagnetic purged (P) versus unpurged (UP) PBSC: A Children's Oncology Group study. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 26 (Suppl 15): A-10011, 2008.
14. Kletzel M, Katzenstein HM, Haut PR, et al.: Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with triple-tandem high-dose therapy and stem-cell rescue: results of the Chicago Pilot II Study. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2284-92, 2002.
15. Yu AL, Gilman AL, Ozkaynak MF, et al.: A phase III randomized trial of the chimeric anti-GD2antibody ch14.18 with GM-CSF and IL2 as immunotherapy following dose intensive chemotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL0032. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 27 (Suppl 15): A-10067z, 2009.
16. Cheung NK, Kushner BH, Cheung IY, et al.: Anti-G(D2) antibody treatment of minimal residual stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed at more than 1 year of age. J Clin Oncol 16 (9): 3053-60, 1998.
17. Simon T, Hero B, Faldum A, et al.: Consolidation treatment with chimeric anti-GD2-antibody ch14.18 in children older than 1 year with metastatic neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 22 (17): 3549-57, 2004.
18. Miano M, Garaventa A, Pizzitola MR, et al.: Megatherapy combining I(131) metaiodobenzylguanidine and high-dose chemotherapy with haematopoietic progenitor cell rescue for neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 27 (6): 571-4, 2001.
19. Matthay KK, Tan JC, Villablanca JG, et al.: Phase I dose escalation of iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation in refractory neuroblastoma: a new approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol 24 (3): 500-6, 2006.

Recurrent Neuroblastoma

The prognosis and treatment of recurrent or progressive neuroblastoma depends on many factors including initial stage, tumor biological characteristics at recurrence, the site and extent of the recurrence or progression, previous treatment, and individual patient considerations. In selected patients originally diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk disease, recurrence may be treated successfully with limited intervention. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) experience with recurrence in intermediate-risk neuroblastoma is that the majority of recurrences can be salvaged, as demonstrated by a 3-year event free survival (EFS) of 88% and an overall survival (OS) of 96%.[1] When neuroblastoma recurs in a child originally diagnosed with high-risk disease and is widespread, the prognosis is usually poor despite additional intensive therapy.[2,3,4] The combination of cyclophosphamide plus topotecan has been active in patients with recurrent or refractory disease who have not received topotecan previously.[5] 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131-I-MIBG) therapy is also active in patients with recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma.[6] Clinical trials are appropriate and should be considered. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, though rare at initial presentation, may occur in 5% to 10% of patients with recurrent neuroblastoma. Inward compression of the brain from cranial metastases can occur, and rarely meningeal and isolated intracranial metastases occur. Early recognition and treatment of CNS involvement may result in reduced neurologic impairment.[7,8]

In North America, the COG investigated a risk-based neuroblastoma treatment plan that assigned all patients to a low-, intermediate-, or high-risk group based on age, International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage, and tumor biology (i.e., MYCN gene amplification, International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification [INPC] system, and DNA ploidy).[9] Treatment of recurrent disease was determined by risk group at the time of diagnosis (refer to Table 1), extent of disease at recurrence, patient age at recurrence, and the tumor biology. If tumor was unavailable for biological studies at recurrence, the biology of the tumor at time of diagnosis was used to help determine treatment.

Recurrent Neuroblastoma in Patients Initially Classified as Low Risk

(Risk categories are defined in the Table 1 in the Stage Information section of this summary.)

Local/regional recurrence

Local regional recurrent cancer is resected if possible:

1. Those with favorable biology and regional recurrence more than 3 months after completion of planned treatment are observed if resection of the recurrence is total or near total (=90% resection). Those with favorable biology and a less than near-total resection are treated with 12 weeks of chemotherapy.
2. Infants younger than 1 year at the time of local/regional recurrence whose tumors have any unfavorable biologic properties are observed if resection is total or near total. If the resection is less than near total, these same infants are treated with 24 weeks of chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen (COG-P9641 and COG-A3961). Older children with local recurrence with either unfavorable INPC classification or MYCN gene amplification have a poor prognosis and should be treated with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above, and often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoic acid may improve outcome of newly diagnosed high-risk patients with a poor prognosis.[10] These modalities are commonly employed in the treatment of patients with a recurrence that augurs a poor prognosis.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted. For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site.

  • The COG Intermediate-Risk study (COG-ANBL0531) treats risk/treatment Group 2 and Group 3 patients (previously classified as low risk) with progressive nonmetastatic disease with surgery if possible. If surgery achieves a very good partial response (VGPR), no further therapy is given. If a VGPR is not achieved, additional cycles of chemotherapy are given to total eight cycles and additional surgery is performed if possible. Those who still do not reach a VGPR receive up to six cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy until a VGPR is achieved.

Metastatic recurrence

Metastatic recurrent or progressive neuroblastoma in an infant initially categorized as low risk (see Table 1 in the Stage Information section of the summary.) and younger than 1 year at recurrence, whether the patient has INSS stage 1, 2, or 4S at the time of diagnosis, may be treated according to tumor biology as defined in the prior COG trials (COG-P9641 and COG-A3961):

1. If the biology is completely favorable, metastasis is in a 4S pattern, and the recurrence or progression is within 3 months of diagnosis, the patient is observed systematically.
2. If the metastatic progression or recurrence with completely favorable biology occurs more than 3 months after diagnosis or not in a 4S pattern, then the primary tumor is resected if possible and 12 to 24 weeks of chemotherapy are given, depending on response.
3. If the tumor in the infant with metastatic recurrence or progression has unfavorable INPC classification and/or is diploid, the primary tumor is resected if possible and 24 weeks of chemotherapy is given.

Chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen (COG-P9641).

Any child initially categorized as low risk who is older than 1 year at the time of metastatic recurrent or progressive disease who is not in the stage 4S pattern usually has a poor prognosis and should be treated with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above, and often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoic acid may improve outcome of newly diagnosed patients with a poor prognosis.[10] These modalities are commonly employed in the treatment of patients with a recurrence that augurs a poor prognosis.

Recurrent Neuroblastoma in Patients Initially Classified as Intermediate Risk

(Risk categories are defined in Table 1 in the Stage Information section of the summary.)

Local/regional recurrence

The current standard of care is based on the experience from the COG Intermediate-Risk treatment plan (COG-A3961). Local regional recurrence of neuroblastoma with favorable biology that occurs more than 3 months after completion of 12 weeks of chemotherapy may be treated surgically. If resection is less than near total, then 12 additional weeks of chemotherapy may be given. Chemotherapy consists of moderate doses of carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The cumulative dose of each agent is kept low to minimize permanent injury from the chemotherapy regimen (COG-A3961).

Treatment options under clinical evaluation

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trials that is currently being conducted. For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site

  • COG-ANBL0531: The current COG Intermediate-Risk study treats risk/treatment Group 2 or 3 patients (previously classified as intermediate risk) who develop progressive nonmetastatic disease with surgery if possible. If surgery achieves a very good partial response (VGPR), no further therapy is given. If a VGPR is not achieved, additional cycles of chemotherapy are given to total eight cycles and additional surgery is performed if possible. For those patients that still do not reach a VGPR, six cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy are given until a VGPR is achieved. Treatment Group 4 patients have already received eight cycles of chemotherapy or have progressed on the standard chemotherapy regimen, and surgery and up to six cycles of topotecan and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy are administered until a VGPR is achieved.

Metastatic recurrence

If the recurrence is metastatic and/or occurs while on chemotherapy or within 3 months of completing chemotherapy and/or has unfavorable biologic properties, the prognosis is poor and the patient should be treated with an aggressive regimen of combination chemotherapy consisting of very high doses of the drugs listed above, and often also including ifosfamide and high-dose cisplatin. Both myeloablative therapy and postchemotherapy retinoid acid may improve outcome of newly diagnosed patients with a poor prognosis.[10] These modalities are commonly employed in the treatment of patients with a recurrence that augurs a poor prognosis.

Recurrent or Refractory Neuroblastoma in Patients Initially Classified as High Risk

(Risk categories are defined in Table in the Stage Information section of this summary.)

Any recurrence in patients initially classified as high risk signifies a very poor prognosis. If the tumor has recurred in spite of the administration of aggressive high-dose combination chemotherapy, often with myeloablative therapy plus stem cell rescue, phase I or phase II clinical trials are appropriate and should be considered.[3] The combination of cyclophosphamide and topotecan with or without etoposide has been used in recurrent disease.[5,11]

Treatment options under clinical evaluation

For more information about clinical trials, please see the NCI Web site.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with recurrent neuroblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

1. Baker DL, Schmidt M, Cohn S, et al.: A phase III trial of biologically-based therapy reduction for intermediate risk neuroblastoma. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 25 (Suppl 18): A-9504, 2007.
2. Pole JG, Casper J, Elfenbein G, et al.: High-dose chemoradiotherapy supported by marrow infusions for advanced neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 9 (1): 152-8, 1991.
3. Castel V, Cañete A, Melero C, et al.: Results of the cooperative protocol (N-III-95) for metastatic relapses and refractory neuroblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol 35 (6): 724-6, 2000.
4. Lau L, Tai D, Weitzman S, et al.: Factors influencing survival in children with recurrent neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26 (4): 227-32, 2004.
5. Saylors RL 3rd, Stine KC, Sullivan J, et al.: Cyclophosphamide plus topotecan in children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase II study. J Clin Oncol 19 (15): 3463-9, 2001.
6. Matthay KK, Yanik G, Messina J, et al.: Phase II study on the effect of disease sites, age, and prior therapy on response to iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in refractory neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 25 (9): 1054-60, 2007.
7. Kramer K, Kushner B, Heller G, et al.: Neuroblastoma metastatic to the central nervous system. The Memorial Sloan-kettering Cancer Center Experience and A Literature Review. Cancer 91 (8): 1510-9, 2001.
8. Blatt J, Fitz C, Mirro J Jr: Recognition of central nervous system metastases in children with metastatic primary extracranial neuroblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 14 (3): 233-41, 1997 May-Jun.
9. Goto S, Umehara S, Gerbing RB, et al.: Histopathology (International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification) and MYCN status in patients with peripheral neuroblastic tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Cancer 92 (10): 2699-708, 2001.
10. Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al.: Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 341 (16): 1165-73, 1999.
11. Simon T, Längler A, Harnischmacher U, et al.: Topotecan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (TCE) in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. Results of a phase-II trial. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 133 (9): 653-61, 2007.

Get More Information From NCI

CALL 1-800-4-CANCER

For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.

CHAT ONLINE

The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer.

WRITE TO US

For more information from the NCI, please write to this address:

NCI Public Inquiries Office
Suite 3036A
6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC8322
Bethesda, MD 20892-8322

SEARCH THE NCI WEB SITE

The NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use the search box in the upper right corner of each Web page. The results for a wide range of search terms will include a list of "Best Bets," editorially chosen Web pages that are most closely related to the search term entered.

There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.

FIND PUBLICATIONS

The NCI has booklets and other materials for patients, health professionals, and the public. These publications discuss types of cancer, methods of cancer treatment, coping with cancer, and clinical trials. Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. NCI materials on these and other topics may be ordered online or printed directly from the NCI Publications Locator. These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).

Changes to this Summary 12 / 10 / 2009)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

This summary was extensively revised.

More Information

ABOUT PDQ

  • PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database.
    Full description of the NCI PDQ database.

ADDITIONAL PDQ SUMMARIES

  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Adult Treatment
    Treatment options for adult cancers.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Pediatric Treatment
    Treatment options for childhood cancers.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Supportive and Palliative Care
    Side effects of cancer treatment, management of cancer-related complications and pain, and psychosocial concerns.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection (Testing for Cancer)
    Tests or procedures that detect specific types of cancer.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Prevention
    Risk factors and methods to increase chances of preventing specific types of cancer.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Genetics
    Genetics of specific cancers and inherited cancer syndromes, and ethical, legal, and social concerns.
  • PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    Information about complementary and alternative forms of treatment for patients with cancer.

IMPORTANT:

This information is intended mainly for use by doctors and other health care professionals. If you have questions about this topic, you can ask your doctor, or call the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).

Date Last Modified: 2009-12-10

related physicians

related services

Bon Secours International| Sisters of Bon Secours USA| Bon Secours Health System

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. Privacy Policy. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.