Acupuncture (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI]
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER
Purpose of This PDQ Summary
This PDQcancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of acupuncture as a treatment for cancer. The summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board.
Information about the following is included in this summary:
- A brief history of acupuncture research.
- The results of clinical studies of acupuncture.
- Possible side effects of acupuncture use.
This summary is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians and other health professionals who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Some of the reference citations in the summary are accompanied by a level of evidence designation. These designations are intended to help the readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or treatment strategies. The PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level of evidence designations. These designations should not be used as a basis for reimbursement determinations.
This summary is also available in a patient version, which is written in less technical language.
This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of acupuncture as a treatment for individuals with cancer or cancer-related disorders. The summary includes a brief history of acupuncture practice, a review of laboratory and animal studies, the results of clinical observations and trials, and possible side effects of acupuncture therapy. Information presented in some sections of the summary can also be found in tables located at the end of those sections.
This summary contains the following key information:
- As part of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture has been practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years.
- Acupuncture is defined as the application of stimulation such as needling, moxibustion, cupping, and acupressure on specific sites of the body known as acupuncture points.
- Acupuncture has been practiced in the United States for about 200 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the acupuncture needle as a medical device in 1996.
- Acupuncture is used to treat a wide range of illnesses and ailments; however, cancer patients predominantly use it for pain management and nausea and vomiting control.
- To date, most reported acupuncture research on cancer has been carried out in China.
- Laboratory and animal studies to explore the mechanisms of acupuncture for cancer treatment have focused mainly on the role of acupuncture in the activation of immune functions, such as increasing blood cell count and enhancing lymphocyte and natural killer cell activity.
- The aim of most acupuncture clinical observation and clinical trials in cancer patients has been to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on symptom management.
- The most convincing research data on the effects of acupuncture in cancer patients have emerged from studies of the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are hypertext linked (at first use in each section) to the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms, which is oriented toward nonexperts. When a linked term is clicked, a definition will appear in a separate window. All linked terms and their corresponding definitions will appear in a glossary in the printable version of the summary.
Reference citations in some PDQ CAM information summaries may include links to external Web sites that are operated by individuals or organizations for the purpose of marketing or advocating the use of specific treatments or products. These reference citations are included for informational purposes only. Their inclusion should not be viewed as an endorsement of the content of the Web sites, or of any treatment or product, by the PDQ Cancer CAM Editorial Board or the National Cancer Institute.
Acupuncture, a complementary and alternative (CAM) therapy used in cancer management,[1,2,3,4] has been used clinically to manage cancer-related symptoms, treat side effects induced by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, boost blood cell count, and enhance lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell activity. In cancer treatment, its primary use is symptom management; commonly treated symptoms are cancer pain,[4,5] chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting,[6,7] and other symptoms that affect a patient's quality of life, including weight loss, anxiety,depression,insomnia, poor appetite, and gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation and diarrhea).[8,9,10] Acupuncture is generally accepted by children aged 10 years and older.
More than 40 states and the District of Columbia have laws regulating acupuncture practice (see www.acufinder.com for a complete list). The National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine offers national certification examinations for practitioners of acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (www.nccaom.org); most, but not all, states require this certification. More than 50 schools and colleges of acupuncture and Oriental medicine operate in the United States, many of which offer master's-level programs and are accredited by or have been granted candidacy status by the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM). ACAOM standards for a master's-level degree require a 3-year program (approximately 2,000 hours of study) for acupuncture and a 4-year program for Oriental medicine, which includes acupuncture and herbal therapy (www.ACAOM.org). In recent years, some schools have begun to offer programs for Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine with an additional 1,200 hours of clinical-based doctoral training. Some Western medical training, including the study of anatomy, physiology, and clean-needle technique is included in the curriculums of these schools. Postgraduate training programs in medical acupuncture for physicians also exist. In the United States, training to be a licensed acupuncturist is regulated according to individual state law. Because the educational and licensing requirements for acupuncture practice vary from state to state, one should inquire from each state board of acupuncture (or other relevant board) for particular information. Third-party reimbursements also vary from state to state. Some insurance companies cover acupuncture or limited acupuncture treatment. Federal payers such as Medicare do not generally reimburse for acupuncture treatment.
Acupuncture has been practiced in China and other Asian countries for more than 4,000 years.[13,14,15] In China, acupuncture is part of a TCM system of traditional medical knowledge and is practiced along with other treatment modalities such as herbal medicine, tui na (massage and acupressure), mind/body exercise (e.g., qigong and tai chi), and dietary therapy.[16,17] In the United States, several different acupuncture styles are practiced in addition to TCM. These include Japanese acupuncture (e.g., meridian therapy), English acupuncture (e.g., five element or traditional acupuncture), French acupuncture (e.g., French energetic acupuncture), Korean acupuncture (e.g., constitutional acupuncture), and American medical acupuncture. Most of these are derived from ancient Chinese medical philosophy and practices. All are based on the view that the human body must be perceived and treated as a whole and as part of nature; health is the result of harmony among bodily functions and between the body and nature, and disease occurs when this harmony is disrupted. TCM therapeutic interventions, including acupuncture are used to restore the state of harmony.
Acupuncture is closely associated with Chinese meridian theory. According to this theory, there are 12 primary meridians, or channels, and eight additional meridians, each following a particular directional course along the body. A vital energy known as qi flows through these meridians and participates in the homeostatic regulation of various bodily functions. Along the meridians are approximately 360 points that serve as both pathognomonic signs of disorder and as loci for acupuncture treatments.[15,18] When the normal flow of energy over a meridian is obstructed (e.g., as a result of tissue injury or a tumor), pain or other symptoms result.
The purpose of acupuncture therapy is to re-open the normal energy flow, thereby relieving the symptoms by stimulating specific sites (acupuncture points) on the meridians. In acupuncture treatment, stainless steel needles, usually ranging from 0.22 to 0.25 mm in diameter, are inserted into relevant acupuncture points to stimulate the affected meridians. A needling sensation known as de qi sensation, in which the patient feels heaviness, numbness, or tightness, is often required during an acupuncture treatment. Length and frequency of treatment vary according to the condition being treated. Chronic conditions usually require a longer treatment period. Typically, two or three sessions per week are required initially and may decrease to once a week after several weeks of treatment. Needles are typically left in place for 15 to 30 minutes after insertion, and their effects may be augmented with manual or electrical stimulation and/or heat (e.g., moxibustion).
Classical techniques of acupuncture include needling, moxibustion, and cupping. Acupressure, using fingers to apply pressure on acupuncture points, is also considered a form of acupuncture treatment. Moxibustion is a method in which an herb (Artemisia vulgaris) is burned above the skin or on an acupuncture point for the purpose of warming it to alleviate symptoms. Cupping promotes blood circulation and stimulates acupuncture points by creating a vacuum or negative pressure on the surface of the skin. During the past several decades, various new auxiliary devices have been developed. Acupuncture devices such as electroacupuncture (EA) machines and heat lamps are commonly used to enhance the effects of acupuncture.
In addition to classical acupuncture techniques, other techniques have been developed and are sometimes used in cancer management. These include trigger point acupuncture, laser acupuncture, acupuncture point injection, and techniques focusing on particular regions of the body: auricular acupuncture, scalp acupuncture, face acupuncture, hand acupuncture, nose acupuncture, and foot acupuncture. Of these, auricular acupuncture is the most commonly used.
Although acupuncture has been practiced for millennia, it has come under scientific investigation only recently. To date, most studies and clinical trials of the mechanisms and efficacy of acupuncture in cancer management have been carried out in China. In 1976, however, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified acupuncture needles as investigational devices (Class III) (www.fda.gov). This resulted in a number of research studies on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. In November 1994, the Office of Alternative Medicine (the predecessor of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored an NIH-FDA workshop on the status of acupuncture needle usage. Two years later, the FDA reclassified acupuncture needles as medical devices (Class II) without, however, giving specific indications for their use (www.fda.gov). In 1997, NIH held a Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture to evaluate its safety and efficacy. The 12-member panel concluded that promising research results showing the efficacy of acupuncture in certain conditions have emerged and that further research is likely to uncover additional areas in which acupuncture intervention will be useful. The panel stated that "there is clear evidence that needle acupuncture treatment is effective for postoperative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting." It also stated that there are "a number of other pain-related conditions for which acupuncture may be effective as an adjunct therapy, an acceptable alternative, or as part of a comprehensive treatment program," and it agreed that further research is likely to uncover additional areas in which acupuncture intervention will be useful.
These actions by the FDA and NIH have resulted in the establishment of a number of active programs of research into the mechanisms and efficacy of acupuncture, much of which is, or is potentially, relevant to cancer management. To date, the most extensively investigated aspect of these mechanisms has been the effect of acupuncture on pain management. The NIH Consensus Panel concluded that "acupuncture can cause multiple biological responses," local and distal, "mediated mainly by sensory neurons…within the central nervous system." Acupuncture "may also activate the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, resulting in a broad spectrum of systemic effects," including "alterations in peptides,hormones and neurotransmitters and the regulation of blood flow." Recent studies show the effect of acupuncture on chronic inflammatory pain.[21,22] Evidence suggests that acupuncture operates through the autonomic nervous system to balance the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and suggests that the anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are mediated by its electrophysiologic effects on neurotransmitters, cytokines, and neuropeptides.[22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31] Reviewed in  Many studies provide evidence that opioid peptides are released during acupuncture and that acupuncture analgesia is mediated by the endogenous opioid system.[32,33]
Laboratory and animal cancer studies exploring the mechanisms of acupuncture have focused mainly on the activation and modulation of immune functions. Acupuncture treatment points are located by using standard anatomic landmarks and comparative anatomy. EA is the most commonly used treatment intervention; a few studies have used moxibustion. These studies show that acupuncture may boost animal immune function by increasing blood cells and enhancing NK cell and lymphocyte activity.[34,35,36] According to one animal behavioral study, acupuncture may be a useful adjuvant for suppressing chemotherapy-induced emesis.
Although several studies published in China examined the effect of acupuncture on the human immune system,[8,29,32,38,39,40,41] most cancer-related human clinical studies of acupuncture evaluated its effect on patient quality of life. These investigations mainly focused on cancer symptoms or cancer treatment–related symptoms, predominantly cancer pain [10,23,42,43,44,45,46] and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.[25,27,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55] Studies have also been done on the effect of acupuncture on radiation-induced xerostomia (dry mouth), rectitis, dysphonia, weight loss, cough, thoracodynia, hemoptysis, fever, esophagealobstruction, poor appetite, night sweats, hot flashes in women and men, dizziness, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients.[8,9,10,57,58,59,60] The evidence from most of these clinical studies is inconclusive, despite their positive results; either poor research design or incompletely described methodologic procedures limit their value. There is controversy about the most appropriate control for acupuncture, which also limits the interpretability of the results of clinical trials. The positive results of the studies on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, which benefit from scientifically sound research designs, are the most convincing.
The generally accepted history of acupuncture/moxibustion (known as zhen jiu) is part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an indigenous, coherent system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The history of acupuncture/moxibustion in China can be traced back archeologically at least 4,000 years, when bian (stone needles) were in use. During the long history of recorded practice, acupuncture has been applied to many disorders. The earliest written medical text, the ancient classic Huang Di Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic, second century BC), records nine types of needles and their therapeutic functions.
The dissemination of acupuncture and TCM to other regions dates back centuries: first to Korea and Japan and then to other Asian countries. The use of acupuncture in Europe was documented in the middle of the 16th century. The relatively brief history of acupuncture in the United States can be traced back about 200 years, when Dr. Franklin Bache published a report in the North American Medical and Surgical Journal on his use of acupuncture to treat lower back pain. However, until the 1970s, when U.S.–Chinese diplomatic ties were resumed, the practice of acupuncture in this country was mainly limited to Chinatowns.
For centuries, Chinese acupuncturists treated cancer symptomatically. Ancient literature and acupuncture textbooks classify cancer as a Zhengsyndrome or blood stasis condition and document acupuncture treatment principles and methods.[5,6,7] Since the development of modern conventional medicine, acupuncture has been used clinically only as an adjunct to conventional cancer treatment.
Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies
At least seven animal studies investigating the effects of acupuncture in cancer or cancer-related conditions have been reported in the scientific literature (see table at end of this section).[1,2,3,4,5] Two of the studies were conducted in China, one of which was published in Chinese with an English abstract. One study was conducted in Japan, one in Sweden, and one in the United States. Four of the studies were ex vivo laboratory investigations using blood samples or tissues;[1,2,3,5] the remaining study was an animal behavioral study testing the effect of acupuncture on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
The four ex vivo studies suggested that acupuncture is useful in anticancer therapy either by actively stimulating immune activity or by preventing chemotherapy suppression of immune activity.
In a study involving normal rats, electroacupuncture (EA) (1 Hz, 5–20 V, 1-millisecond pulse width, 2 hours) applied at the point Tsu-Sanli (S36) for 2 hours daily on 3 consecutive days enhanced the cytotoxicity of splenicnatural killer (NK) cells compared with a stimulation of a nonacupuncture control point in the abdominal muscle.
Another study found that NK cell activity and T-lymphocytetransformation rate were increased in a mouse model of transplantedmammary cancer compared with a control (P < .05) after eight sessions of acupuncture and moxibustion.
A study involving tumor-bearing mice (sarcoma S180) using moxibustion to warm the acupuncture point Guanyuan (CV4) once a day for 10 days found significantly increased production of erythrocytes, compared with a nontreatment control.
The fourth ex vivo study used a rat model to investigate the effect of EA on nerve growth factor (NGF), which is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS have an increased risk of endometrial cancer and other diseases. Repeated EA treatments (12 treatments administered over 30 days) in PCO rats significantly lowered the concentrations of NGF in the ovaries, compared with untreated PCO rats.
A study of cyclophosphamide-induced emesis in a ferret behavioral model used acupuncture as an adjunct therapy in treating the emeticside effects of chemotherapy. EA at 100 Hz, 1.5 V, for 10 minutes in combination with subeffective doses of antiemetics such as ondansetron (0.04 mg/kg), droperidol (0.25 mg/kg), and metoclopramide (2.24 mg/kg) significantly reduced the total number of emetic episodes by 52%, 36%, and 73%, respectively (P < .01), in this ferret model.
A rat model has been established by injecting AT-3.1 prostate cancer cells into the tibia of the adult male Copenhagen rat, which closely mimics prostate cancer-induced bone cancer pain. The cancer-caused pain was treated with 10 Hz EA for 30 minutes a day at acupuncture point gallbladder 30 (GB30) from days 14 to 18 after cancer-cell injection. For sham control, EA needles were inserted into GB30 without stimulation. Thermal hyperalgesia, a decrease in paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus, and mechanical hyperalgesia, a decrease in paw withdrawal pressure threshold, were measured at baseline and 20 minutes after EA. EA significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia compared to sham control. Moreover, the EA inhibited up-regulation of preprodynorphin mRNA and dynorphin as well as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and its mRNA compared to sham control. Intrathecal injection of antiserum against dynorphin A (1–17) and IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly inhibited the cancer-induced hyperalgesia. These data suggests that EA alleviates bone cancer pain at least in part by suppressing spinal dynorphin and IL-1beta expression.[7,8]
Another cutaneous cancer pain model has been established by injecting B16-BL6 melanoma cells into the plantar region of one hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. A single EA treatment showed significant analgesia on day 8 but not on day 20. EA treatments once every other day starting on day 8 showed analgesia at day 20, but EA starting on day 16 did not. The results indicate that EA exerts antihyperalgesic effects on early stage but not on late stage cutaneous cancer pain. These animal studies support the clinical use of EA in the treatment of cancer pain.
The findings of these studies suggest that acupuncture may be effective in treating cancer-related symptoms and cancer treatment–related disorders and that acupuncture may be able to activateimmune functions[1,2,3] and regulate the autonomic nervous system.[4,5] Only one study reported a decrease in tumor volume in animals treated with acupuncture compared with control animals; however, the scientific value of this report is limited because of insufficient information about the research methodology.
Table 1. Animal Studies of Acupuncturea
|Reference Citation(s)||Animal Model||Endpoints Measured||No. of Animals: Total; Evaluable; Treated; Control||Strongest Benefit Reportedb|
|||Mice with S180 sarcoma tumors||Erythrocyte levels in mice with tumors||30; 10 tumor-bearing mice plus acupuncture; 10 normal mice, no acupuncture; and 10 tumor-bearing mice, no acupuncture||Erythrocyte increasesc|
|||Mice with mammary cancer||Exp. 1: Immune system function||Exp. 1: 30; 10 tumor-bearing mice plus acupuncture; 10 tumor-bearing mice, no acupuncture; 10 normal mice||Increase in NK cell activity; lymphocyte invasion of tumor increased; reduced tumor volumed|
|Exp. 2: Histopathology of the tumor||Exp. 2: 56; 30 tumor-bearing mice plus acupuncture; and 26 tumor-bearing mice, no acupuncture|
|||Rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (not cancer)||NGF concentration in ovaries and adrenal glands||32; 8 EV plus EA; 8 EV control; 8 oil control; and 8 NaCl control||Lower NGF concentration in ovariese|
|||Ferrets receiving chemotherapy||Emesis induced by cyclophosphamide treatment||86||36%–73 % decrease in vomiting with EA as adjuvant to antiemeticsf|
|Exp. 1: 30 EA only (6 per group with various EA parameters); 8 vehicle control; 6 sham EA; 6 place EA|
|Exp. 2: 18 EA plus antiemetic (6 plus ondansetron, 6 plus metoclopramide, and 6 plus droperidol); 6 EA alone control; 6 sham EA control; and 18 antiemetics alone control (6 plus ondansetron, 6 plus metoclopramide, and 6 plus droperidol)|
|||Rats (normal)||Splenic NK cell activity||46; 22 acupuncture treated (17 tibial and 5 abdominal); 18 no acupuncture controls; assignment of remaining 6 not noted||NK cell activity enhancedg|
Human / Clinical Studies
Effect of Acupuncture on Immune Function
At least seven human studies have evaluated the effect of acupuncture on immune system function in patients with cancer (see table at end of this section).[1,2,3,4,5,6,7] These studies were all conducted in China. Five were reported in English,[1,2,3,6,7] and two were reported in Chinese with English abstracts.[4,5]
The first randomized controlled trial found that acupuncture treatment enhanced platelet count and prevented leukocyte decrease after radiation therapy or chemotherapy, in comparison with the control group.
A second study involved a group of 40 postoperative cancer patients, 20 of whom received daily acupuncture treatment and 20 of whom served as a control group. After 3 days, leukocyte phagocytosis was enhanced in the treated group, compared with the baseline measurement (P < .01); no such enhancement was observed in the control group.
A third study observed the effect of acupuncture on interleukin-2(IL-2) and natural killer (NK) cell activity in the peripheral blood of patients with malignanttumors. The patients were divided into an acupuncture treatment group (n = 25), which received 30 minutes of acupuncture daily for 10 days, and a nonacupuncture control group (n = 20). The data showed that IL-2 level and NK cell activity were significantly increased in the acupuncture group, compared with the control group (P < .01).
A fourth study observed the effect of acupuncture on T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3 +, CD4 +, and CD8 +), soluble IL-2 receptor (SIL-2R), and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) in the peripheral blood of patients with malignant tumors. The data showed that acupuncture treatment increased the proportion of the CD3 + and CD4 + T-lymphocyte subsets, the CD4 +/CD8 + ratio (P < .01), and the level of beta-EP. It decreased the level of SIL-2R (P < .01). The investigators suggested that the anticancer effect of acupuncture may be mediated via the mechanism of immunomodulation.
The nonrandomized clinical study showed that microwave acupuncture (MAT), a newly developed technique in which a specially designed device attached to a normally inserted acupuncture needle is used to deliver microwave radiation to a given point, enhanced the immunologic function of cancer patients. Although there was an increase in white blood cell count in the MAT group, the change was not significantly different from that seen in the control group under drug treatment.
In a clinical case series, 28 cancer patients who were treated with electroacupuncture (EA) while undergoing chemotherapy experienced no declines in T cells (CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +) or in NK cell activity, both of which are usually suppressed by chemotherapy. Similar findings were reported in a study comparing EA to the control in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast, colorectal cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
In another clinical case series, 48 patients with leukopenia—including two cancer patients—who were treated with manual acupuncture experienced improvements in leukocyte count, intracutaneousphytohemagglutinin (PHA), and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels after 14 daily acupuncture treatments, compared with their pretreatment levels.
Table 2. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: Immune System Functiona
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Condition Investigated||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapy Used (Yes/No/ Unknown)d||Level of Evidence Scoree|
|||RCT||Immune system function and symptoms related to cancer and treatment||76; 38 radiation therapy and chemotherapy plus acupuncture; 38 radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone||Enhanced immune system function, weight gain, symptom relief, and fewer side effects from chemotherapye||No||1iiC|
|||RCT||Leukocyte activity in cancer patients following surgery||40; 20 standard care plus acupuncture; 20 standard care alone||Leukocyte phagocytic activity enhancedf||No||1iiD|
|||RCT||Changes in blood IL-2 levels and NK cell activity in cancer patients||45; 25 acupuncture; 20 no additional treatment or sham||Enhanced immune system function: Increases in IL-2 levels and NK cell activityg||No||1iiD|
|||RCT||Changes in blood T-cell populations and SIL-2R and beta-endorphin levels in cancer patients||40; 20 acupuncture; 20 no additional treatment or sham||Enhanced immune system function: increases in CD3 + cells, CD4 + cells, the CD4 +: CD8 + cell ratio, and beta-endorphin levels; decrease in SIL-2R levelsh||No||1iiD|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||Leukopenia after radiation therapy||49; 20 MAT alone; 29 drugs alone||Increase in average WBC count for both groupsi||No||2D|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Leukopenia, caused by cancer, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, rheumatoid arthritis; and other causes||48; 48 acupuncture (2 with cancer); none||Increase in leukocyte levels; improvement in immune system function as measured by IgG, IgA, and IgM levels; PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferative responses; and complement protein C3 levelsj||Unknown||3iD|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||T-cell levels and NK cell activity in patients treated with chemotherapy||28; 28 EA; none||No decline in T-cell levels or NK cell activity after chemotherapyk||No||3iiD|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||T-cell levels and NK cell activity in patients treated with chemotherapy||139; 48 EA; 49||No decline in T-cell levels, NK cell activity, humoral immunity, or leukocyte count after chemotherapy||Unknown||3iiiD|
Effect of Acupuncture on Cancer Pain
Eight clinical studies of acupuncture as a treatment for cancer-related pain have been reported in the English language (see table at end of this section).[9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16] Three studies were randomized controlled clinical trials, with two studies conducted in China and one in France.[10,11,16] Two studies were nonrandomized clinical trials conducted in France and Germany.[12,13] Three studies were case series, with one each from England, Hong Kong, and the United States.[9,14,15]
One randomized trial compared classical Chinese acupuncture; acupuncture point injection with freeze-dried human transfer factor; and conventional analgesic treatment in patients with stomach cancer pain. The investigators reported an equivalent analgesic effect among the three groups observed after 2 months of treatment; however, the conventionally treated group experienced significantly superior analgesia compared with both acupuncture treatment groups during the first 10 days of treatment. The researchers reported that the patients in both acupuncture treatment groups also experienced improved quality of life and a decrease in the side effects of chemotherapy, in addition to analgesia.
The second randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of various combinations of auricular acupuncture, Chinese herbs, and epiduralmorphine to relieve postoperative pain in 16 patients with liver cancer. The study design was complicated and had a very small sample size (n = 2 per group). On the basis of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (0–100 mm), all of the combination treatment groups experienced better analgesia than did a placebo-treated control group.
A nonrandomized single-arm observational clinical study evaluated the effect of auricular acupuncture in 20 cancer patients who were still experiencing pain after treatment with analgesics. While patients continued their analgesic medication, auricular acupuncture needles were embedded in ear acupuncture points chosen according to clinical symptoms and electrodermal response and were left in place until they fell out. In some cases, the needles remained in place for 35 days, while in others they fell out after 5 days. Pain intensity was measured by a nurse on the VAS on day 0 and day 60, and the data were analyzed using a t test. The results showed that pain intensity decreased or remained stable after auricular acupuncture in all patients, with a significant average pain intensity decrease of 33 mm (P < .001). The same investigators later reported a larger (n = 90) randomized blinded controlled trial in which cancer pain intensity was significantly decreased (by 36%) in an auricular acupuncture treatment group, in comparison with control groups (acupuncture at placebo points or auricular seeds placed at placebo points) after 2 months of treatment (P < .001).
Another nonrandomized study investigated the effect of acupuncture in postoperative pain management and arm movement in breast cancer patients after surgical excision of the cancer and axillary lymph node dissection. Forty-eight patients were treated with acupuncture on the third, fifth, and seventh days after surgery and on the day of patient discharge. Compared with a control group of 32 patients who had the same surgery but did not receive acupuncture treatment, the acupuncture group had significant pain relief during arm movement on the fifth and seventh days following surgery and at the time of discharge. The range of arm motion also increased significantly in the treatment group, compared with the control group, during the postoperative period (P < .001). The authors concluded that acupuncture point selection based on the state of the patient and obtaining a needling"de qi" sensation were important to achieving an effective acupuncture treatment.
In a case series involving 183 cancer patients who were treated with acupuncture for cancer-related pain, 52% were significantly helped (P value not stated). Multiple treatments at intervals of 1 to 4 weeks were nearly always necessary for significant and long-term pain control.
In another case series, 29 patients with malignant tumors who developed pain received EA treatment. All experienced various degrees of pain relief, and 25 out of 29 were able to either reduce or eliminate their analgesic requirements following multiple EA treatments.
A third case series produced similar results. After auricular EA treatment, five patients with cancer pain reported improvements.
Although most of these studies were positive and demonstrated the effectiveness of acupuncture in cancer pain control, the findings have limited significance because of methodologic weaknesses such as small sample sizes, an absence of patient blinding to treatment in most cases, varying acupuncture treatment regimens, a lack of standard outcome measurements, and an absence of adequate randomization. Further investigations into the effects of acupuncture on cancer pain using rigorous scientific methodology are warranted.
Table 3. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: Cancer-Related Paina
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Condition Treated||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapy Used (Yes/No/ Unknown)d||Level of Evidence Scoree|
|||RCT||Stomach cancer pain||48; 16 acupuncture and 16 acupuncture point injection of freeze-dried human transfer factor; 16 conventional analgesics||In long-term treatment, equal or better analgesia than conventional drugsf||No||1iiC|
|||RCT||Postoperative pain in liver cancer patients||16; 12 Chinese herbs, auricular EA, or epidural morphine given alone or in combination; 4 placebo controls||Combination treatment better than placebo and EA alone, Chinese herbs alone, or epidural morphine aloneg||Yes (Chinese herbs; epidural morphine)||1iC|
|||RCT||Cancer pain||90; 28 auricular acupuncture; 51 acupuncture at placebo points in ear or auricular seeds fixed at placebo points with adhesive||Pain intensity decreased by 36% at 2 monthsh||Yes (analgesics and co-analgesics, including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptics)||1iiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Cancer pain||20; 20 auricular acupuncture; none||Average pain intensity decreased by 43%, using VAS (0–100 mm)i||Yes (analgesics)||3iiiC|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||Local pain and limitation of arm movement after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection||80; 48 acupuncture; 32 no acupuncture||Improved postoperative pain; improved range of arm motionj||Unknown||2C|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Cancer-related pain||183; 183 acupuncture; none||95 (52%) "significantly helped"||Yes (analgesics)||3iC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Cancer pain||29; 29 EA; none||Pain reduced; injection of analgesics reduced or no longer required||Yes (analgesics)||3iC|
|||Best case series||Cancer pain||5; 5 auricular EA; none||Symptoms improved||Unknown||4|
Effect of Acupuncture on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting
Of all the investigated effects of acupuncture on cancer-related or chemotherapy-related symptoms and disorders, the positive effect of acupuncture on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (N/V) is the most convincing, as demonstrated by the consistency of the results of a variety of clinical study types, including randomized clinical trials, nonrandomized trials, prospective consecutive case series, and retrospective studies (see table at end of this section). Consistent with the findings from clinical studies of acupuncture on N/V due to other causes such as postoperative N/V and morning sickness, these studies showed acupuncture to be effective in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced N/V. A well-documented example is discussed below.
A systematic review of the effect of acupuncture on N/V describes five clinical trials of chemotherapy-induced N/V, conducted by different investigators on different groups of patients and using different forms of acupuncture point stimulation. All five trials yielded positive results. These consistent results support the claim that acupuncture is useful for treating chemotherapy-induced N/V. More recently, the efficacy of acupuncture point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced N/V has been reviewed, suggesting that acupuncture is more effective for acute vomiting than for acute or chronic nausea.
A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effect of EA on chemotherapy-induced emesis in 104 patients with breast cancer who were undergoing a highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen. The patients were randomly assigned to receive low-frequency EA at classic antiemetic acupuncture points once daily for 5 days (n = 37), minimal needling at control points with mock EA on the same schedule (n = 33), or no adjunct needling (n = 34). All patients received concurrent antiemetic drugs (prochlorperazine,lorazepam, and diphenhydramine) and high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide,cisplatin, and carmustine). The main outcome measures were the total number of emesis episodes and the proportion of emesis-free days occurring during the 5-day study period. The data revealed fewer emesis episodes in the EA treatment group compared with those in the minimal needling and drug-only control groups (P < .001), although differences among the groups were not significant during the 9-day follow-up period (P = .18). These findings are consistent with results reported by other investigators.[19,20,22,23,25,26,29] However, another published study showed that acupuncture had no additional effect on the prevention of acute N/V in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy when combined with ondansetron. One study suggested decreased delayed nausea from acupressure at point p6 compared with sham acupressure.
Table 4. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: Nausea and Vomitinga
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Condition Treated||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapyd||Level of Evidence Scoree|
|||RCT||N/V related to high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer||104; 37; 67 (sham EA or no EA)||Less N/V in EA groupf||Yes (prochlorperazine, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine)||1iiC|
|[19,25,26]||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||10; 10 (EA); 10 sham EA (crossover study)||Significantly less N/V than controlg||Yes (metoclopramide)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||100 (these patients were used more than once because of nature of crossover study); 27 surface electrodes; 11 rubber electrodes; 14 crossover study; 24 transcutaneous electrical stimulation||75% achieved considerable benefith||Yes (metoclopramide, thiethylperazine, prochlorperazine, cyclizine, lorazepam, and steroid)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||16 (the same 16 patients treated twice in a crossover study); 16 ondansetron plus transcutaneous electrical stimulation; 16 cross-over treatment ondansetron only||Symptom-free patient days: 58.8%i||Yes (ondansetron)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||53 enrolled; 38 completed; 38 acupressure; 38 crossover to acupressure at a sham point||55% reduction in N/Vj||Yes (antiemetics)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from high-dose chemotherapy||80; 41 acupuncture; 39 noninvasive placebo acupuncture||Nonek||Yes (ondansetron)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||739; 233 bilateral acupressure bands and 234 transcutaneous electrical stimulation bands; 233 no bands; 39 not evaluable||Less N/V in treatment groups than in controll||Yes (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, prochlorperazine, and/or others)||1iiC|
|||RCT||N/V from chemotherapy||36; 17 acupressure; 19 control||Significantly lower N/V||Yes (antiemetics)||1iiC|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||N/V from chemotherapy||105; EA at P6||63%, complete relief, at least 8 h||Yes (metoclopramide; prednisolone)||2C|
|[23,25]||Consecutive case study||N/V from chemotherapy||40; 40 acupressure||8–24 h relief||Yes (not specified)||3iiC|
|||CT||N/V from chemotherapy||43; 38 10 Hz EA; 5 sham (crossover subset)||8–10 h relief; 32 patients had complete relief||Yes (antiemetics)||2C|
|||CT||N/V from chemotherapy||18; 18 acupressure bands; 18 (crossover study—incorrect placement of acupressure bands)||Effective for N/V||Yes (antiemetics: prochlorperazine, maxalon, and domperidone suppository)||2C|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||N/V from chemotherapy||26; 26 acupuncture; 51 historical controls—no acupuncture||Mean no. of episodes and duration of N/V reduced||Yes (metoclopramide,dexamethasone, and diphenhydramine)||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series (pilot study)||N/V from chemotherapy||15; 15 EA; none||12 patients—no symptoms for 8 h||Yes (antiemetic: metoclopramide)||3iiiC|
|||Consecutive, uncontrolled case series||N/V from chemotherapy mean no. of emesis 7–3||27; no controls||10 patients had complete response to EA and had no vomiting||Yes (antiemetics: either ondansetron 8 mg or granisetron 3 mg)||3iiiC|
|||RCT||N/V from moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy||160; 96; 54||Decreased delayed N/V for acupressure||Yes (anthracycline and cyclophosphamide and an antiemetic)||1iiC|
Effect of Acupuncture on Cancer and Cancer Treatment–Related Side Effects
Nine studies have reported on the effects of acupuncture on cancer or other cancer treatment–related symptoms, including weight loss, cough, thoracodynia, hemoptysis, fever, anxiety,depression, night sweats, hot flashes, xerostomia,rectitis, dysphonia, esophagealobstruction, and postoperative lymphedema.[1,9,35,36,37,38,39,40,41] Four studies were from China,[1,37,38,39] one from Italy, one from Japan, and three from the United States.[9,35,41] Most were case studies or case series,[9,37,38,39] one was a retrospective survey study, one was a phase I pilot study, and two were randomized clinical trials.[1,41] The findings from these studies are summarized in a table at the end of this section.
In a randomized clinical trial, 76 patients with various types of cancer, including 38 with esophageal cancer, 24 with stomach cancer, and 14 with lung cancer, were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 38 per group). The treatment group received acupuncture in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy, and the control group was treated with radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone. The data showed that the patients in the acupuncture group gained significantly more body weight than patients in the control group (P < .001). The acupuncture group also showed greater improvement than the controls in the symptoms of cough, thoracodynia, hemoptysis, and fever for patients with lung cancer and the symptoms of chest pain, mucus vomiting, and difficulty in swallowing for patients with esophageal cancer. In addition, the acupuncture group suffered fewer side effects (poor appetite, N/V, dizziness, or fatigue) from radiation therapy or chemotherapy than the control group. However, no statistical analysis was performed on these data. A randomized controlled trial of 138 patients treated with acupuncture plus massage versus usual care showed decreased pain (P = .05) and decrease in depressive mood (P = .003) in postoperative cancer patients. A small randomized controlled trial of EA compared with hormone therapy in women with breast cancer suggested a prolonged effect of EA on hot flushes after 24 months. Seven of 19 women initially randomly assigned to EA had 2.1 flushes in 24 hours compared with a baseline of 9.6 flushes in 24 hours.
In a randomized controlled trial, 47 cancer patients with moderate to severe fatigue were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group received six 20-minute sessions of acupuncture (n = 15), one group was instructed to use acupressure (n = 16), and the third group, the sham acupressure group (n = 16), was taught to apply pressure in three points unrelated to true acupressure. All three groups continued with the same technique for 2 weeks. The study concluded acupuncture was a more effective method than acupressure or sham acupressure.
The phase I pilot study evaluated the effect of acupuncture on tamoxifen-induced menopause symptoms. Fifteen patients with breast cancer who were taking tamoxifen were treated with acupuncture weekly for 3 months. The Greene Menopause Index was used for outcome assessments at baseline before treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The results showed that anxiety, depression, and somatic and vasomotor symptoms, but not libido, were significantly improved in comparison with baseline (P < .001). A pilot study of acupuncture for joint symptoms related to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy was performed in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Acupuncture reduced all related joint symptoms and improved functional ability; however, there was no control or blinding with this study. A retrospective evaluation of 194 patients with predominantly breast or prostate cancer and experiencing vasomotor symptoms found long-term relief of vasomotor symptoms associated with acupuncture and self-acupuncture. The authors suggested that overall treatment dose may be more important than point location, but favored SP6.
The retrospective survey study involved patients of an oncology clinic who were offered acupuncture treatment for potential palliation of symptoms. Among 89 patients treated with acupuncture, 79 responded to a telephone questionnaire survey. The data indicated that the major reasons for referral included pain (53%), xerostomia (32%), hot flashes (6%), and nausea/loss of appetite (6%). Sixty percent of the patients showed at least 30% improvement in their symptoms, and about one-third had no change in the severity of symptoms. Patients were not questioned regarding acupuncture treatment expectations.
Several case series reports describe clinically observed improvement of symptoms following acupuncture treatment.[9,37,38,39,47,48,49] These symptoms included cancer therapy–induced night sweats, hot flashes, aromatase inhibitor–induced arthralgia, rectitis, xerostomia, dysphonia, cancer-related esophageal obstruction, and postoperative lymphedema in patients following intrapelviclymph node dissection for malignant gynecologic tumors.
Table 5. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: For Other Cancer-Related Symptoms or Cancer Treatment–Related Symptomsa
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Condition Treated||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapy (Yes/No/ Unknown)d||Level of Evidence Scoree|
|||RCT||Symptoms of weight loss, cough, thoracodynia, hemoptysis, fever, and side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy||76; 38 acupuncture; 38 no acupuncture||Weight gain, symptom relief, fewer side effectsf||No||1iiC|
|||Phase I pilot study||Menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen||15; 15 acupuncture; none||Anxiety, depression, and somatic and vasomotor symptoms improvedg||No||3iiiC|
|||Pilot study||Musculoskeletal pain related to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy||21; 19 acupuncture; none||Reduced severity and increased functional ability||Analgesics (acetaminophen, NSAIDs, or COX-2 inhibitors) and various CAM approaches||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series, surveyed retrospectively||Unspecified symptoms (including pain, xerostomia, hot flashes, nausea/loss of appetite) from cancer or cancer treatment||79; 79 traditional Chinese acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, percutaneousnerve stimulation, Korean hand acupuncture, or Japanese scalp acupuncture; none||60% showed at least 30% improvement||Yes (standard medical therapies)||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Radiation rectitis in women treated for cervical cancer||44; 44 acupuncture; none||73% radiation rectitis cured: no blood or mucus for 15 days||No||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Postoperative lower extremity lymphedema in women treated for gynecologic tumors||24; 24 acupuncture and moxibustion; none||Edema prevented or markedly reduced||Unknown||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Xerostomia after radiation therapy in patients with cancer||13; 13 acupuncture; none||Symptoms improved||Yes (not specified)||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Xerostomia||14; 8 acupuncture; none||Symptoms improved||No||3iiiC|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Night sweats, hot flashes in patients with cancer||6; 6 acupuncture; none||Symptoms improved||Yes (not specified)||3iiiC|
|||Case report||Dysphonia after radiation therapy||1; 1 acupuncture; none||Voice recovered||Unknown||Not applicable|
|||Case report||Esophageal obstruction in patients with esophageal cancer||2; 2 acupuncture; none||Obstruction relieved and normal bowel movements restored||Yes (not specified)||Not applicable|
|||Nonconsecutive case series||Vasomotor symptoms for breast and prostate cancer||194; 194; none||79% showed 50% or greater reduction in hot flashes||none||3iiiC|
|||RCT||Pain/depression||138; 93 acupuncture and massage; 45 usual care||Increased pain relief/decreased depression||Yes (usual care)||1iiC|
|||RCT||Hot flashes in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors||72; 42; 30||Reduction of hot flashes but no statistical difference between acupuncture and sham treatment||Yes; SSRIs||1iiC|
|||RCT||Cancer-related fatigue||47; 31; 16||Improved fatigue levels||None||1iiC|
|||RCT||Hot flushes||45; 27 EA; 18 hormone therapy||Vasomotor symptoms improved||Unknown||1iiC|
Serious adverse effects of acupuncture are rare. Reported accidents and infections to organs or tissues appear to be related to violations of sterile procedure, negligence of the practitioner, or both.[1,2] A systematic review of case reports on the safety of acupuncture, involving 98 papers published in the English language from 22 countries during the period from 1965 to 1999, found only 202 incidents. The number of incidents appeared to decline as training standards and licensure requirements were enhanced. Among the 118 (60%) reported incidents involving infection, 94 (80%) involved hepatitis, occurring mainly in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Very few hepatitis or other infections associated with acupuncture have been reported since 1988, when widespread use of disposable needles was introduced and national certification requirements for clean needle techniques were developed and enforced as an acupuncture licensure requirement.[3,4] Because cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy are immunocompromised, extra precautions must be taken and strict clean needle techniques must be applied when acupuncture treatment is given.
Minor adverse effects of acupuncture, such as pain at needling sites, hematoma, tiredness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, and localized skin irritation, have been reported.[6,7,8,9,10] These minor adverse effects can be minimized by appropriate patient management, including local pressing and massage at the needling site after treatment.[11,12] Acupuncture in children has not been studied extensively. However, adverse effects appear to be rare and limited to the same effects as observed in adults.
Overall Level of Evidence for Acupuncture Treatment of Cancer-Related Symptoms
It is noteworthy that almost all reported clinical studies on the effects of acupuncture on cancer or cancer therapy–related symptoms focus on symptom management rather than the disease itself. Investigations into the effects of acupuncture on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, many of which were randomized and well-controlled, produced the most convincing findings. Although a considerable number of favorable clinical acupuncture studies have been reported, most were case studies, clinical observations, or nonrandomized and poorly controlled clinical trials. In many studies, methodologic flaws in clinical study design hampered rigorous scientific efforts to evaluate the effects of acupuncture. Although pain relief is the most clinically common use of acupuncture, only a few studies on cancer pain are well-controlled or have sample sizes large enough to support their findings.
Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes (i.e., endpoints) measured. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. For additional information about levels of evidence analysis, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Changes to This Summary (01 / 07 / 2010)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added 2005 Ezzo et al. and 2006 Ezzo et al. as references 6 and 7.
Added text to state that in recent years, some schools have begun to offer programs for Doctor of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine with an additional 1,200 hours of clinical-based doctoral training.
Revised text to clarify that at least seven animal studies investigating the effects of acupuncture in cancer or cancer-related conditions have been reported in the scientific literature.
Added text to state that a rat model has been established by injecting AT-3.1 prostate cancer cells into the tibia of the adult male Copenhagen rat, which closely mimics prostate cancer-induced bone cancer pain; however, these data suggest that electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates bone cancer pain at least in part by suppressing spinal dynorphin and interleukin-1beta expression (cited 2005 Zhang et al. as reference 6, 2007 Zhang et al. as reference 7, and 2008 Zhang et al. as reference 8).
Added text to state that another cutaneous cancer pain model has been established by injecting B16-BL6 melanoma cells into the plantar region of one hind paw of C57BL/6 mice, and the results indicate that EA exerts antihyperalgesic effects on early stage but not on late stage cutaneous cancer pain (cited Mao-Ying et al. as reference 9).
Revised text to clarify that the symptoms included cancer therapy–induced night sweats, hot flashes, aromatase inhibitor–induced arthralgia, rectitis, xerostomia, dysphonia, cancer-related esophageal obstruction, and postoperative lymphedema in patients following intrapelvic lymph node dissection for malignant gynecologic tumors.
Added text to Table 5 about a nonconsecutive case series for xerostomia (cited Meidell et al. as reference 49).
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT CAM THERAPIES
- The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM).
- The National Cancer Institute Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM).
- CAM on PubMed, a special subset of the PubMed scientific literature database created through a partnership between NCCAM and the National Library of Medicine.
- PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database
Full description of the NCI PDQ database.
OTHER PDQ SUMMARIES
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Adult Treatment
Treatment options for adult cancers.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Pediatric Treatment
Treatment options for childhood cancers.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Supportive and Palliative Care
Side effects of cancer treatment, management of cancer-related complications and pain, and psychosocial concerns.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection (Testing for Cancer)
Tests or procedures that detect specific types of cancer.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Prevention
Risk factors and methods to increase chances of preventing specific types of cancer.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Genetics
Genetics of specific cancers and inherited cancer syndromes, and ethical, legal, and social concerns.
- PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries: Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Information about complementary and alternative forms of treatment for patients with cancer.
This information is intended mainly for use by doctors and other health care professionals. If you have questions about this topic, you can ask your doctor, or call the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
Date Last Modified: 2010-01-07