Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • DMD
  • dystrophinopathy
  • pseudohypertrophic myopathy

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare muscle disorder but it is one of the most frequent genetic conditions affecting approximately 1 in 3500 male births worldwide. It is usually recognized between three and six years of age. DMD is characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy) of the muscles of the pelvic area followed by the involvement of the shoulder muscles. As the disease progresses, muscle weakness and atrophy spread to affect the trunk and forearms and gradually progress to involve additional muscles of the body. The disorder is progressive and most affected individuals require a wheelchair by the teen-age years. Serious life-threatening complications may ultimately develop including disease of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and breathing (respiratory) difficulties.

DMD is caused by changes (mutations) of the DMD gene on the short arm (p) of the X chromosome. The gene regulates the production of a protein called dystrophin that is found in association with the membrane of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Dystrophin is thought to play an important role in maintaining the structure of these muscle cells. DMD is classified as a dystrophinopathy. The dystrophinopathies are a spectrum of muscle diseases, each caused by alterations in DMD gene. The severe end of the spectrum is known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the less severe as Becker muscular dystrophy.

The dystrophinopathies belong to a large group of diseases known as the muscular dystrophies. These disorders are characterized by specific changes (e.g. variation of muscle fiber size, muscle fiber necrosis and inflammation) in muscle biopsy. The clinical hallmarks include the weakness and wasting of various voluntary muscles of the body. Approximately 30 different disorders make up the muscular dystrophies. The disorders affect different muscles and have different ages of onset, severity and inheritance patterns.

Resources

March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Tel: (914)997-4488
Fax: (914)997-4763
Tel: (888)663-4637
Email: Askus@marchofdimes.com
Internet: http://www.marchofdimes.com

Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy
158 Linwood Plaza
Suite 220
Fort Lee, NJ 07024
USA
Tel: (201)944-9985
Fax: (201)944-9987
Tel: (800)714-5437
Email: Pat@parentprojectmd.org
Internet: http://www.parentprojectmd.org

Muscular Dystrophy Association
3300 E. Sunrise Dr
Tucson, AZ 85718
USA
Tel: (520)529-2000
Fax: (520)529-5300
Tel: (800)572-1717
Email: mda@mdausa.org
Internet: http://www.mda.org/

Muscular Dystrophy Canada
2345 Yonge Street Suite 900
Toronto
Ontario, Intl M4P 2E5
Canada
Tel: 416-488-0030
Fax: 416-488-7523
Tel: (866)-MUSCLE-8
Email: info@muscle.ca
Internet: http://www.muscle.ca

Muscular Dystrophy Campaign
61 Southwark Street
London, SE1 0HL
United Kingdom
Tel: 020 7803 4800
Email: info@muscular-dystrophy.org
Internet: http://www.muscular-dystrophy.org

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Email: me20t@nih.gov
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

Society for Muscular Dystrophy Information International
P.O. Box 7490
Bridgewater
Nova Scotia, B4V 2X6
Canada
Tel: 902-685-3961
Fax: 902-685-3962
Email: smdi@auracom.com
Internet: http://users.auracom.com/smdi

European Alliance of Neuromuscular Disorders Associations
MDG Malta 4,
Gzira Road
Gzira, Intl GAR 04
Malta
Tel: 00356 21 346688
Fax: 00356 21 318024
Email: eamda@hotmail.com
Internet: http://www.eamda.net

MUMS National Parent-to-Parent Network
150 Custer Court
Green Bay, WI 54301-1243
USA
Tel: (920)336-5333
Fax: (920)339-0995
Tel: (877)336-5333
Email: mums@netnet.net
Internet: http://www.netnet.net/mums/

New Horizons Un-Limited, Inc.
811 East Wisconsin Ave
Suite 937
Milwaukee, WI 53202
USA
Tel: (414)299-0124
Fax: (414)347-1977
Email: horizons@new-horizons.org
Internet: http://www.new-horizons.org

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Email: ordr@od.nih.gov
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/Default.aspx

Madisons Foundation
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310)264-0826
Fax: (310)264-4766
Email: getinfo@madisonsfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.madisonsfoundation.org

Let Them Hear Foundation
1900 University Avenue, Suite 101
East Palo Alto, CA 94303
Tel: (650)462-3143
Fax: (650)462-3144
Tel: (877)735-2929
Email: info@letthemhear.org
Internet: http://www.letthemhear.org

DuchenneConnect
Emory University, Department of Human Genetics
2165 N. Decatur Road
Decatur, GA 30033
Tel: (404)778-0553
Fax: (404)935-0636
Email: coordinator@duchenneconnect.org
Internet: http://www.duchenneconnect.org

CureDuchenne
3334 East Coast Hwy. #157
Corona Del Mar, CA 92625
USA
Tel: (949)872-2552
Fax: (949)872-2568
Email: debra@cureduchenne.org
Internet: http://www.CureDuchenne.org

Muscular Dystrophy Association of Kosovo
Str"Ardian Krasnici N:6/22
Prishtina, 10000
Republic of Kosovo
Tel: +381-38-247-721
Fax: +381 38 247 721
Email: gimi_mda@yahoo.com

Child Neurology Foundation
2000 West 98th Street
Bloomington, MN 55431
USA
Tel: (952)641-6100
Fax: (952)881-6276
Tel: (800)263-5430
Email: jstone@childneurologyfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.childneurologyfoundation.org

For a Complete Report

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. ® (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html

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