Apnea, Sleep

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Apnea, Sleep is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Disorder Subdivisions

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Upper Airway Apnea)
  • Pickwickian Syndrome
  • Central Sleep Apnea
  • Mixed Sleep Apnea

General Discussion

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by temporary, recurrent interruptions of breathing (respiration) during sleep. Symptoms of this disorder include periodic wakefulness during the night, excessive sleepiness during the day, and loud snoring during sleep. People with this disorder are frequently overweight. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea can avoid serious medical problems that may arise as a consequence of oxygen deprivation in untreated individuals. Sleep apnea occurs in three different forms: obstructive, central, and mixed.

An individual's rate of respiration is regulated by group of nerve cells in the brain that control the rhythm of breathing in response to changing oxygen levels in the blood (respiratory drive). In some apneas, the respiratory drive is abnormal. Obstructive sleep apnea (upper airway apnea), the most common form of sleep apnea, results from the blockage of the respiratory passages during sleep. Affected individuals may struggle to breathe and experience increased respiratory effort. Respiratory drive is unaffected in people with this form of sleep apnea but the blockage prevents them from breathing normally. Obstructive apnea is more likely than central apnea to be associated with snorting and arousal from sleep.

In the rare central sleep apnea, the brain does not send adequate signals to the diaphragm and lungs during sleep, resulting in low respiratory drive. In this form of sleep apnea, breathing stops and does not resume until the oxygen-deprived brain finally sends impulses to the diaphragm and lungs. In infants, central sleep apnea is defined as lasting 20 seconds or more.

Mixed sleep apnea is a combination of improper brain signals and obstruction of the respiratory passages. In some cases, sleep apnea is referred to as "Pickwickian Syndrome." In these cases, obstructive apnea is combined with obesity and an abnormally short neck. Infantile sleep apnea affects children less than one year old, and its cause is unknown. (For more information on infantile sleep apnea, see the Related Disorders section of this report.)

Resources

National Sleep Foundation
1522 K Street
Suite 500
Washington, D.C. 20005
Tel: (202)347-3471
Fax: (202)347-3472
Email: nsf@sleepfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.sleepfoundation.org

Narcolepsy Network, Inc.
110 Ripple Lane
North Kingstown, RI 02852
USA
Tel: (401)667-2523
Fax: (401)633-6567
Tel: (888)292-6522
Email: narnet@narcolepsynetwork.org
Internet: http://www.narcolepsynetwork.org

American Sleep Disorders Association
1610 14th Street NW
Suite 300
Rochester, MN 55901
Tel: (507)287-6006
Fax: (507)287-6008
Email: asda@millcomm.com

Center for Research in Sleep Disorders
1275 East Kemper Rd.
Cincinnati, OH 45246
Tel: (513)671-3101
Fax: (513)671-4159
TDD: (311)111-6111
Email: ggaz@tristatesleep.com

American Sleep Apnea Association
1424 K Street NW
Suite 302
Washington, DC 20005
USA
Tel: (202)293-3650
Fax: (202)293-3656
Email: asaa@sleepapnea.org
Internet: http://www.sleepapnea.org

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Email: me20t@nih.gov
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

MUMS National Parent-to-Parent Network
150 Custer Court
Green Bay, WI 54301-1243
USA
Tel: (920)336-5333
Fax: (920)339-0995
Tel: (877)336-5333
Email: mums@netnet.net
Internet: http://www.netnet.net/mums/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Email: ordr@od.nih.gov
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/Default.aspx

For a Complete Report

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. ® (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html

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