Tay Sachs Disease
National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
It is possible that the main title of the report Tay Sachs Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
- Amaurotic Familial Idiocy
- Amaurotic Familial Infantile Idiocy
- Cerebromacular Degeneration
- GM2 Gangliosidosis, Type 1
- Hexoaminidase Alpha-Subunit Deficiency (Variant B)
- Infantile Cerebral Ganglioside
- Infantile Sipoidosis GM-2 Gangliosideosis (Type S)
- Lipidosis, ganglioside, infantile
- Sphingolipidosis, Tay-Sachs
Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder in which deficiency of an enzyme (hexosaminidase A) results in excessive accumulation of certain fats (lipids) known as gangliosides in the brain and nerve cells. This abnormal accumulation of gangliosides leads to progressive dysfunction of the central nervous system. This disorder is categorized as a lysosomal storage disease. Lysosomes are the major digestive units in cells. Enzymes within lysosomes break down or "digest" nutrients, including certain complex carbohydrates and fats.
Symptoms associated with Tay-Sachs disease may include an exaggerated startle response to sudden noises, listlessness, loss of previously acquired skills (i.e., psychomotor regression), and severely diminished muscle tone (hypotonia). With disease progression, affected infants and children may develop cherry-red spots within the middle layer of the eyes, gradual loss of vision, and deafness, increasing muscle stiffness and restricted movements (spasticity), eventual paralysis, uncontrolled electrical disturbances in the brain (seizures), and deterioration of cognitive processes (dementia). The classical form of Tay-Sachs disease occurs during infancy; an adult form (late-onset Tay-Sachs disease) may occur anytime from adolescence to the mid 30s.
Tay-Sachs disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The disorder results from changes (mutations) of a gene known as the HEXA gene, which regulates production of the hexosaminidase A enzyme. The HEXA gene has been mapped to the long arm (q) of chromosome 15 (15q23-q24). .
CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)
176 Nantwich Road
Crewe, Intl CW2 6BG
Tel: +44 870 7700 325
Fax: +44 870 7700 327
National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc.
2001 Beacon Street
Brighton, MA 02135
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Canadian Society for Mucopolysaccharide and Related Diseases, Inc.
PO Box 64714
Ontario, Intl L3R OM9
NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
31 Center Dr
Building 31, Room 2A32
Bethesda, MD 20892
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo
Carrera 7 No 40 - 62
Tel: (571) 3208320
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Let Them Hear Foundation
1900 University Avenue, Suite 101
East Palo Alto, CA 94303
Hide & Seek Foundation for Lysosomal Disease Research
6475 East Pacific Coast Highway Suite 466
Long Beach, CA 90803
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This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. ® (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html