A poison is a substance that has toxic effects and may injure you or make you sick if you are exposed to it. Poisons can be found everywhere, from simple household cleaners to cosmetics to houseplants to industrial chemicals. Even medicines that are taken in the wrong dose, at the wrong time, or by the wrong person can cause a toxic effect. Poisonous substances can hurt you if they are swallowed, inhaled, spilled on your skin, or splashed in your eyes. In most cases, any product that gives off fumes or is an aerosol that can be inhaled should be considered a possible poison. More than 90% of poisonings occur in the home.
Young children have the highest risk of poisoning because of their natural curiosity. More than half of poisonings in children occur in those who are younger than age 6. Some children will swallow just about anything, including unappetizing substances that are poisonous. When in doubt, assume the worst. Always believe a child or a witness, such as another child or a brother or sister, who reports that poison has been swallowed. Many poisonings occur when an adult who is using a poisonous product around children becomes distracted by the doorbell, a telephone, or some other interruption.
Teenagers also have an increased risk of poisonings, both accidental and intentional, because of their risk-taking behavior. Some teens experiment with poisonous substances such as by sniffing toxic glues or inhaling aerosol substances to get "high." About half of all poisonings in teens are classified as suicide attempts, which always requires medical evaluation.
Adults—especially older adults—are at risk for accidental and intentional poisonings from:
- Alcohol and illegal drugs. For more information, see the topic Alcohol and Drug Problems.
- Gas leaks, such as exhaust leaks from heaters and stoves and automobile exhaust. For more information, see the topic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
- Medicines, such as acetaminophen, antibiotics, cough and cold remedies, vitamins, pain relievers, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers.
- Household cleaning supplies and other substances, such as cosmetics, antifreeze, windshield cleaner, gardening products, and paint thinners.
- Herbal products.
If a poisoning was intentional, call your local suicide hotline or the national suicide hotline 1-800-273-TALK or 1-800-273-8255 for help.
Symptoms of poisonings
The symptoms of a suspected poisoning may vary depending on the person's age, the type of poisonous substance, the amount of poison involved, and how much time has passed since the poisoning occurred. Some common symptoms that might indicate a poisoning include:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Throat pain.
- Sudden sleepiness, confusion, or decreased alertness.
- Anxiousness, nervousness, irritability, or tremors.
- Substance residue or burn around the mouth, teeth, eyes, or on the skin.
- Difficulty breathing.
Poison control centers, hospitals, or your doctor can give immediate advice in the case of a poisoning. The United States National Poison Control Hotline phone number is 1-800-222-1222. Have the poison container with you so you can give complete information to the poison control center, such as what the poison or substance is, how much was taken and when. Do not try to make the person vomit. If your poison control center recommends vomiting for a specific substance, follow their guidelines.
First aid home treatment measures for suspected poisoning
Call a poison control center, hospital, or doctor immediately. The United States National Poison Control Hotline phone number is 1-800-222-1222. Have the poison container with you so you can give complete information to the poison control center. Do not try to cause vomiting. If your poison control center recommends vomiting for a specific substance, follow their guidelines.
The poison control center will be able to help you quickly if you have the following information ready:
- Your name and phone number
- The name, age, weight, and health status of the person who has been poisoned
- Type of product. Read the brand name as it is written on the label. Include the list of ingredients and the company name and contact number, if it is available on the label.
- Amount of product involved in poisoning
- Type of poison exposure—swallowed, inhaled, or in contact with the eyes or skin
- Time of poisoning
- Whether the person vomited
- Any first aid measures taken
- Your location and how far you are from an emergency medical facility
If the poison control center recommends medical evaluation, take the product container or substance and any stomach contents that the person vomited to help doctors determine the seriousness of the poisoning.
Do not use syrup of ipecac. It is no longer used to treat poisonings. If you have syrup of ipecac in your home, call your pharmacist for instructions on how to dispose of it and throw away the container. Do not store anything else in the container.
Symptoms to Watch For During Home Treatment
Follow the instructions you received from your doctor or the poison control center about seeking medical evaluation. Call your doctor if any of the following occurs during home treatment:
- New symptoms develop.
- Symptoms do not go away as expected.
- Symptoms become more severe or frequent.
About 80% of poisonings occur in children who are between the ages of 1 and 4 years. Develop poison prevention habits early, before your child is crawling. Babies grow so fast that sometimes they are crawling and walking before you have time to protect them.
- Never leave a poisonous product unattended around children, even for a moment. Many poisonings occur when an adult who is using a poisonous product becomes distracted by the doorbell, a telephone, or some other interruption.
- Be aware of common substances that are poisonous, such as houseplants and cosmetics.
- Use childproof latches on your cupboards.
- Keep products in their original containers. Never store poisonous products in food containers.
- Never leave alcohol within sight or reach of a child.
- Read product labels for caution statements, how to use the product correctly, and first aid instructions.
- Keep the number of your local poison control center near your phone.
- Talk with your doctor about including activated charcoal in your first aid supplies at home. Activated charcoal reduces the toxic effect of some poisons.
- Do not keep poisons such as drain cleaner, oven cleaner, or plant food under your kitchen sink. Keep them out of the sight and reach of children. Dishwasher detergent is especially dangerous.
- Have your home tested for levels of lead if any older leaded paints may still be present. For more information, see the topic Lead Poisoning.
- Some house or garden plants and the chemicals used to care for them (such as fertilizers) can be poisonous if ingested. Be sure to teach your children not to play with them.
- Keep alcohol out of the sight and reach of children.
- Educate your children about the effects of alcohol and medicines. Encourage your teenager to avoid alcohol and drugs.
- Provide nonalcoholic beverages at parties and meals. Don't give your children the impression that adults need to drink alcohol in order to have a good time.
- Put all medicines and vitamins out of the sight and reach of children. Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol, is a common source of childhood poisoning.
- Never call medicines "candy."
- Keep medicines in their original labeled containers.
- Buy nonprescription medicines in child-resistant packages.
- Try to take medicines out of the sight of children.
- Do not regularly use medicines to sleep, lose weight, or relax. Try to find nondrug solutions. For more information, see the topic Sleep Problems, Age 12 and Older.
- Check the label on the bottle each time you take a medicine to make sure you're taking the correct one.
- Check the expiration dates on medicines. If your medicines are expired or no longer needed, call your pharmacist for instructions on how to dispose of them.
Preparing For Your Appointment
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
You can help your doctor treat poisoning by being prepared to answer the following questions. Be sure to bring the poisonous substance with you.
- What substance do you suspect was involved?
- When did the poisoning occur?
- Was the substance swallowed, inhaled, spilled on the skin, or splashed in the eyes?
- Have you ever been treated for a poisoning in the past? What was the substance? How long ago? How was the poisoning treated?
- How much of the substance was involved?
- What symptoms are present?
- How long have symptoms been present?
- Has a poison control center been called? What advice did they give? Did it work?
- What home treatment measures have been tried?
- Have any nonprescription medicines been taken? What effect did they have?
- What prescription and nonprescription medicines do you take?
- Were alcohol or drugs involved in the poisoning?
- Do you have any health risks?
|Author||Jan Nissl, RN, BS|
|Editor||Susan Van Houten, RN, BSN, MBA|
|Associate Editor||Tracy Landauer|
|Primary Medical Reviewer||William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Martin Gabica, MD - Family Medicine|
|Last Updated||October 8, 2009|
Last Updated: October 8, 2009
Author: Jan Nissl, RN, BS