Urinary Incontinence in Men
What is urinary incontinence in men?
Urinary incontinence is the accidental release of urine. It’s not a disease. It’s a symptom of a problem with a man’s urinary tract.
Urine is made by the kidneys and stored in a sac made of muscle, called the urinary bladder. A tube called the urethra leads from the bladder through the prostate and penis to the outside of the body. Around this tube is a ring of muscles called the urinary sphincter. As the bladder fills with urine, nerve signals tell the sphincter to stay squeezed shut while the bladder stays relaxed. The nerves and muscles work together to prevent urine from leaking out of the body.
When you have to urinate, the nerve signals tell the muscles in the walls of the bladder to squeeze. This forces urine out of the bladder and into the urethra. At the same time the bladder squeezes, the urethra relaxes. This allows urine to pass through the urethra and out of the body.
Incontinence can happen for many reasons:
- If your bladder squeezes at the wrong time, or if it squeezes too hard, urine may leak out.
- If the muscles around the urethra are damaged or weak, urine can leak out even if you don't have a problem with your bladder squeezing at the wrong time.
- You can also have incontinence if your bladder doesn't empty when it should. This leaves too much urine in the bladder. If the bladder gets too full, urine will leak out when you don't want it to.
- If something is blocking your urethra, urine can build up in the bladder and cause leaking.
Urinary incontinence happens more often in older men than in young men, but it’s not just a normal part of aging.
What are the different types of urinary incontinence?
Urinary incontinence can be short-term or long-lasting (chronic). Short-term incontinence is often caused by other health problems or treatments. This topic is about the different types of chronic urinary incontinence:
- Stress incontinence happens when you sneeze, cough, laugh, lift objects, or do something that puts stress or strain on your bladder and you leak urine.
- Urge incontinence is an urge to urinate that’s so strong that you can't make it to the toilet in time. It also happens when your bladder squeezes when it shouldn't. This can happen even when you have only a small amount of urine in your bladder. Overactive bladder is a kind of urge incontinence. But not everyone with an overactive bladder leaks urine.
- Overflow incontinence happens when your bladder doesn't empty as it should and then leaks urine later. This happens when bladder muscles are weak or the urethra gets blocked. These blockages can be related to an enlarged prostate or a narrow urethra.
- Total incontinence happens when you are always leaking urine. It happens when the sphincter muscle no longer works.
- Functional incontinenceis rare. It happens when you can't make it to the bathroom in time to urinate. This is usually because something got in your way or you were not able to walk there on your own.
What causes urinary incontinence in men?
Different types of incontinence have different causes.
- Stress incontinence can happen when the prostate gland is removed. If there has been damage to the nerves or to the sphincter, the lower part of the bladder may not have enough support. Keeping urine in the bladder is then up to the sphincter alone. The sphincter may be too weak to hold back the urine. And any extra pressure from sneezing, coughing, or straining can cause urine to leak.
- Urge incontinence is caused by bladder muscles that squeeze so hard that the sphincter can't hold back the urine. This causes a very strong urge to urinate. Doctors don't know why this happens, but sometimes it can be caused by other urinary problems.
- Overflow incontinence can be caused by something blocking the urethra, which leads to urine building up in the bladder. This is often caused by an enlarged prostate gland or a narrow urethra. Over time, the bladder gets so full that pressure builds up and forces the extra urine to move past the blockage and out of the bladder. Overflow incontinence may also happen because of weak bladder muscles.
In men, incontinence is often related to prostate problems or treatments.
Drinking alcohol can make urinary incontinence worse. Taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs such as diuretics, antidepressants, sedatives, narcotics, or non-prescription cold and diet medicines can also affect your symptoms.
What are the symptoms?
The most common sign of urinary incontinence is leaking urine from the bladder. Other signs will depend on the type of urinary incontinence you have.
- Stress incontinence: You release a small amount of urine when you cough, strain, lift something, or change position.
- Urge incontinence: The need to urinate is so strong that you can't reach the toilet in time.
- Overflow incontinence: You have the urge to urinate, but you can only release a small amount. And you can't control the constant dribbling of urine.
How is urinary incontinence in men diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical exam, ask questions about your symptoms and past health, and test your urine. Often this is enough to help the doctor find the cause of the incontinence. You may need other tests if the incontinence is caused by more than one problem or if the cause is unclear.
How is it treated?
Treatments are different for each person. They depend on the type of incontinence you have and how much it affects your life. After your doctor knows what has caused the incontinence, your treatment may include medicines, simple exercises, or both. A few men need surgery, but most do not.
There are also some things you can do at home. In many cases, these lifestyle changes can be enough to control incontinence.
- Cut back on caffeine drinks, such as coffee and tea. Also cut back on fizzy drinks like soda pop. And don't drink more than one alcoholic drink a day.
- Eat foods high in fiber to help avoid constipation.
- Don't smoke. If you need help quitting, talk to your doctor about stop-smoking programs and medicines. These can increase your chances of quitting for good.
- Stay at a healthy weight.
- Try simple pelvic-floor exercises like Kegels.
- Go to the bathroom at several set times each day, and wear clothes that you can remove easily. Make your path to the bathroom as clear and quick as you can.
- When you urinate, practice double voiding. This means going as much as you can, relaxing for a moment, and then going again.
If you have symptoms of urinary incontinence, don't be embarrassed to tell your doctor. Most people with incontinence can be helped or cured.
Frequently Asked Questions
Learning about urinary incontinence:
Living with urinary incontinence:
Urinary incontinence occurs when the muscle (sphincter) that holds your bladder's outlet closed is not strong enough to hold back the urine. This may happen if the sphincter is too weak, if the bladder muscles contract too strongly, or if the bladder is overfull.
A man may have one or more types of incontinence, and each type may have a different cause.
- Stress incontinence occurs when the muscle (sphincter) surrounding the urethra opens at an inappropriate time. This can happen when you laugh, sneeze, cough, lift something, or change posture. Stress incontinence can be caused by surgery to treat an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer, radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer, or removal of the prostate. For more information, see the topics Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostate Cancer.
Urge incontinence is
caused by bladder contractions that are too strong to be stopped by the
sphincter. Often the urge is a response to something that makes you anticipate
urination, such as waiting to use a toilet, unlocking the door when returning
home, or even turning on a faucet. The bladder contractions can be caused by
many conditions, including:
- Urinary tract infection.
- Bowel problems, such as constipation.
- Prostatitis, a painful infection of the prostate gland.
- Certain neurological conditions that affect nerve signals from the brain, such as Parkinson's disease or stroke.
- Kidney or bladder stones.
- Blockage due to prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
- Overflow incontinence usually is caused by obstruction of the urethra from BPH or prostate cancer or when the bladder muscles contract weakly or don't contract when they should. Other causes include:
Functional incontinence is a rare form of incontinence caused by physical or mental limitations that restrict a man's ability to reach the toilet in time.
Your symptoms will depend on the type of urinary incontinence you have.
Symptoms of stress incontinence may include loss of urine while:
- Changing posture.
Symptoms of urge incontinence may include:
- A sudden, urgent need to urinate.
- Sudden accidents in which you lose a large amount of urine.
- The need to urinate frequently, often at night.
Symptoms of overflow incontinence may include:
- A urine stream that starts and stops during urination.
- An accidental release of a small amount of urine.
- A weak urine stream.
- A need to strain while urinating and a sense that the bladder is not empty.
- An urgent need to urinate, often at night.
- Loss of urine while asleep.
Urinary incontinence in men is often related to prostate problems. As men age, the prostate gland grows larger, squeezing the urethra and pushing the neck of the bladder out of position. These changes can lead to incontinence. In most cases, incontinence due to prostate enlargement can be cured by medicine or prostate surgery.
But prostate surgery is also a major cause of urinary incontinence in men.
- Short-term (acute) incontinence following prostate surgery may go away with time, especially for younger men. In some cases, the incontinence may last up to a year.
- Stress incontinence is a common complication following prostate removal (radical prostatectomy) or radiation treatment for prostate cancer, though it is becoming less common with improving surgical techniques. For more information, see the topic Prostate Cancer.
- Some treatments for an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH) can also cause incontinence, but this is uncommon. For more information, see the topic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
If your incontinence is not related to prostate surgery and it appears suddenly, it will usually clear up after you have received treatment for whatever is causing the incontinence. For example, incontinence related to a urinary tract infection, prostatitis, or constipation will most likely disappear when the infection or condition is cured. For more information, see the topics Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis.
For some men, incontinence may have more than one cause.
What Increases Your Risk
Many factors have been associated with an increased risk of urinary incontinence in men. Incontinence may be the result of various health conditions or medical treatments, or it could be caused by family history or lifestyle. Sometimes factors from more than one of the lists below can combine to cause incontinence.
Physical conditions or lifestyle factors that may make urinary incontinence more likely include:
- Age-related changes, including decreased bladder capacity and physical frailty.
- Smoking tobacco.
- Injury to the bladder or urethra.
- Bladder infection or prostatitis.
- Structural abnormalities of the urinary tract.
Medicines and foods that may make urinary incontinence worse include:
- Caffeinated and carbonated drinks, such as coffee, tea, and soda pop.
- Alcoholic beverages.
- Prescription medicines that increase urine production, such as diuretics, or relax the bladder, such as anticholinergics and antidepressants.
- Other prescription medicines, such as sedatives, narcotics, and calcium channel blockers.
- Nonprescription medicines, such as diet, allergy, and cold medicines.
- Radiation therapy or surgery for prostate cancer.
Several diseases or conditions may increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence, including:
When To Call a Doctor
See your doctor immediately if your urinary incontinence does not go away or is accompanied by:
- Weakness or numbness in your buttocks, legs, and feet.
- Fever, chills, and abdominal (belly) or side pain.
- Blood in your urine, or burning with urination.
- A change in your bowel habits.
Call your doctor if:
- You have a problem with urinary incontinence that is getting worse.
- Uncontrolled loss of urine is enough of a problem that you need to wear an absorbent pad.
- Incontinence interferes with your life in any way.
Do not be embarrassed to discuss incontinence with your doctor. Incontinence is not an inevitable result of aging. Most people with incontinence can be helped or cured.
If you have a sudden change in your ability to urinate and you are not sure if it is related to your urinary incontinence, see the topic Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older.
If you have chronic urinary incontinence that begins slowly, you may be able to control the problem yourself. (See the Home Treatment section of this topic.) If home treatment does not control your problem, or if incontinence interferes with your lifestyle, ask your doctor to recommend a treatment.
If you have urinary incontinence that begins suddenly (acute), call your doctor. Acute incontinence is often caused by urinary tract problems or medicines and can be easily corrected.
Who To See
Any of the following health professionals can diagnose and treat urinary incontinence:
- Family medicine doctor
- Internal medicine doctor
- Physician assistant
- Nurse practitioner
If you need surgery to treat your incontinence, it is important to find a surgeon who is experienced in the type of surgery you need, usually a urologist.
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
Exams and Tests
The first steps your doctor will take to learn the cause of your urinary incontinence are a medical history and a physical examination. The physical exam will include examination of the penis, the prostate, and the nervous system. The history and exam, along with routine diagnostic tests such as a urinalysis, often provide enough information to determine the cause of the incontinence and enable your doctor to start treatment.
Your doctor may ask you to keep a voiding log, which is a record of the amount of liquids you drink and how much and how often you urinate.
Tests that may be done to determine the type and cause of your urinary incontinence include:
- Urinalysis and urine culture, which may be done to learn whether a urinary tract infection (UTI) or prostatitis are present or whether there is blood or sugar in your urine.
- Cough test to check for urine leakage while coughing.
Urodynamic tests, which could include tests to look
for hesitancy or interruptions of your urine flow, to measure the volume of
urine left in your bladder after urination (post-void residual), and to measure
how much urine in the bladder causes you to have a strong urge to urinate. The
actual tests done vary from person to person. Urodynamic testing may include:
- Uroflowmetry. The uroflowmetry test measures the rate of urine flow during urination. During the test, a flow curve will be charted to determine the peak flow rate. A low peak flow rate may be suggestive of an obstruction or a weak bladder causing the incontinence.
- Pressure flow studies, which measure pressures produced in the bladder as the flow changes. Pressure studies may help distinguish between urinary symptoms caused by obstruction and those caused by a problem affecting the bladder muscles or nerves. This test is often used when the cause of a man's symptoms is uncertain.
- Residual urine determination. Your doctor may measure your post-void residual volume by inserting a thin tube (catheter) into your bladder or by using a bladder ultrasound scan immediately after you have urinated.
- Cystometrogram (CMG). This test evaluates your bladder's ability to store and release urine.
- Electromyogram (EMG), which is used to record the electrical activity of muscles.
Your doctor may conduct a cystoscopic exam (a test that allows your doctor to see inside the urinary tract) to rule out other causes of incontinence.
Further tests may be required if initial treatment for incontinence has failed. Other tests may also be needed if you have had previous prostate surgery, radiation therapy, or frequent urinary tract infections, or if a catheter cannot be easily placed into your bladder.
Tests such as cystourethrogram, an X-ray taken of your bladder and urethra while you are urinating, are not often used to evaluate incontinence, but they may be helpful. If your doctor wants to do one of these tests, ask whether the test is necessary to diagnose your type of incontinence.
The treatment you and your doctor choose will depend upon what type of urinary incontinence you have and how much you are bothered by your symptoms.
Assuming there is no infection or cancer or other cause that could only be cured by surgery, treatment for incontinence proceeds in stages.
- Behavioral strategies are tried first for all types of incontinence. These include reducing the amount of liquids you drink, eliminating caffeinated and carbonated drinks, and establishing a schedule for urinating. See the Home Treatment section of this topic for more information.
- Exercise on a regular basis is important for physical and emotional health. Some men with urinary incontinence stop exercising because they fear that it will cause leakage. But regular exercise is important and can help you manage stress and keep your muscles in tone. Pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises can reduce symptoms of urge or stress incontinence.1
- Continence products such as absorbent pads or diapers, incontinence clamps, and pressure cuffs may be used if you are progressing through a different treatment and are waiting to see whether your incontinence goes away or if other methods of treatment have failed. But these products should only be used along with a more specific treatment, since they can hide a more serious condition that may be curable.
Medicines may be prescribed, depending on the cause of your
- Antispasmodics and anticholinergics may be prescribed to relax the bladder (for urge incontinence).
- Antibiotics may be prescribed for incontinence caused by infection.
- You may need to avoid medicines that can cause incontinence, such as diet, cold, and allergy medicines.
- Self-catheterization may be tried if you have overflow incontinence from a weak bladder or blockage or if surgery is not the best option for you.
- Surgery is usually considered when it is the only treatment that can cure the incontinence, such as when the condition is caused by a bladder obstruction.
What To Think About
Many men who have urge incontinence or overflow incontinence also have an enlarged prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia). They may want to talk to a doctor about medicine, surgery, or other treatment to relieve their symptoms. For more information, see the topic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
Treatment will be different for men who have total incontinence or who cannot comply with or tolerate specific treatments because of a serious illness or disease.
You may reduce your chances of developing urinary incontinence by:
- Limiting caffeine and alcohol.
- Keeping your weight down. (For more information, see the topic Weight Management.)
- Quitting smoking. (For more information, see the topic Quitting Smoking.)
- Avoiding constipation by eating a healthy, high-fiber diet.
- Doing Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles that control the flow of urine.
The following changes to diet and lifestyle may help reduce incontinence:
- Reduce or eliminate caffeinated and carbonated drinks—such as coffee, tea, and soda pop—from your diet.
- Do not drink more than one alcohol drink a day.
- Try to identify any foods that might irritate your bladder—including citrus fruits, chocolate, tomatoes, vinegars, spicy foods, dairy products, and aspartame—and eat less of those foods.
- If you smoke, quit. For more information, see the topic Quitting Smoking.
- If constipation is a problem, increase the amount of fiber in your diet. You can do this easily by adding a small amount of wheat bran, even a spoonful, to dishes you normally eat. See your doctor if your constipation continues. For more information, see the Home Treatment section of the topic Constipation, Age 12 and Older.
- If you are overweight, try to lose some weight. Remember that effective weight-loss programs depend on a combination of diet and exercise. For more information, see the topics Weight Management and Fitness.
- Try pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises to strengthen pelvic muscles.
The following changes to urinary habits may help reduce incontinence:
- Establish a schedule of urinating every 3 to 4 hours, regardless of whether you feel the need.
- Practice “double voiding” by urinating as much as possible, relaxing for a few moments, and then urinating again.
- If you have trouble reaching the bathroom before you urinate, consider making a clearer, quicker path to the bathroom and wearing clothes that are easily removed (such as those with elastic waistbands or Velcro closures), or keep a urinal close to your bed or chair.
Talk with your doctor about all medicines you take, including nonprescription medicines, to see whether any of them may be making your incontinence worse. Medicines that may cause urinary incontinence in men include certain antidepressants, sedatives, and even some allergy and cold medicines.
If your urinary incontinence is caused by prostatitis, a painful inflammation of the prostate gland, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. When the infection is cured, your incontinence should be cured as well.
If your incontinence is caused by medicine you are taking, stopping or changing that medicine may be sufficient. But be sure to talk to your doctor before stopping or changing medicines.
Although some types of long-term (chronic) incontinence may be treated with medicine, the likelihood that medicines will improve your incontinence depends on the severity and cause of the problem. Some medicines that are used to treat incontinence may actually make the condition worse in men whose incontinence is caused by an enlarged prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH). So consultation with a urologist is an important part of incontinence care.
- For overflow incontinence: If your overflow incontinence is caused by an enlarged prostate, medicines to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia may be prescribed. But these medicines do not always improve incontinence. For more information, see the topic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
- Anticholinergic and antispasmodic medicines such as oxybutynin and tolterodine calm the nerves that control bladder muscles and increase bladder capacity.
- Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant, which is usually used to treat depression but may also be used to treat urge incontinence. Imipramine causes the bladder muscle to relax while causing the muscles at the bladder neck to contract.
- Duloxetine is a kind of antidepressant called a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It changes how the brain uses certain brain chemicals. How it helps with bladder control is not yet known.
Anticholinergic and tricyclic medicines may also be used to treat stress incontinence, especially if you have both stress and urge incontinence.
What To Think About
Some of the medicines may cause side effects, and some may cause problems by interacting with other medicines you are taking.
If your urinary incontinence has not improved after trying behavioral methods and medicine and your doctor thinks surgery will be an effective treatment, you may choose to have surgery rather than live with your symptoms. In some cases, such as when a bladder outlet obstruction is affecting kidney function, surgery may be the only way to treat the problem that is causing the incontinence.
Surgery may be appropriate for men who:
- Have ongoing (chronic) incontinence.
- Have severe symptoms and total incontinence.
- Are extremely bothered by their symptoms.
- Have problems with urinary retention.
- Have moderate to severe recurrent bleeding.
- Have recurrent urinary tract infections.
Overflow incontinence caused by enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH) is the form of incontinence most often treated with surgery. For more information, see the topic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
Stress incontinence caused by removal of the prostate gland because of prostate cancer or an enlarged prostate may also be treated with surgery, if the incontinence isn't cured after a period of watchful waiting.
If overflow incontinence is caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate surgery may relieve the incontinence. For more information about surgery options and treatment for BPH, see the topic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
Surgery for severe stress incontinence that does not improve with behavioral methods includes:
- Artificial sphincter, which is a device made of silicone rubber that fits around the urethra (the tube that carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body) and can be inflated or deflated to control urination.
- Urethral bulking, which involves injecting material around the urethra to control urination by either closing a hole in the urethra or building up the thickness of the wall of the urethra.
- Bulbourethral sling, which is being studied as a treatment for urinary incontinence that results from prostate surgery. In this procedure, a sling is placed beneath the urethra to support it and is attached to either muscle tissue or the pubic bone. The sling compresses and elevates the urethra, giving the urethra greater resistance to pressure from the abdomen.
What To Think About
Surgery is usually not considered for urinary incontinence unless it is the only reasonable way to cure it or after attempts to treat the problem with conservative measures or other treatment have failed. The decision to have surgery must always be based on an accurate diagnosis and realistic expectations for the surgery.
Most surgical failures are due to incorrect diagnoses. Other reasons for failure include healing problems, additional causes of incontinence that aren't apparent before the surgery, and a lack of experience or skill on the part of the surgeon performing the procedure.
Factors that increase the chances that surgical treatment will fail to correct incontinence include obesity, long-term (chronic) cough, radiation therapy, age, poor nutrition, and strenuous physical activity.
Treatment other than surgery or medicine may be used to treat urinary incontinence.
For stress incontinence
Biofeedback, a technique that helps you learn to control a specific body function, may be an option for some men who have stress incontinence or urge incontinence.
For urge incontinence
Behavioral therapies such as biofeedback and bladder training can be used to treat urge incontinence.
For overflow incontinence
Some men may require intermittent self-catheterization. During this procedure, a catheter is inserted into the bladder, usually 3 to 4 times a day.
Other Treatment Choices
Catheterization may be used to treat
severe incontinence that cannot be managed with medicines or surgery. Catheters
do not cure incontinence but rather allow you or a caregiver to manage
- Intermittent self-catheterization is done with a thin, flexible, hollow tube (catheter) that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder, allowing the urine to drain out.
- Indwelling catheterization uses a catheter that remains in place continuously. For more information, see the topic Care for an Indwelling Urinary Catheter.
- Condom or Texas catheter uses a special condom that can be attached to a tube for short-term use. The condom, placed over the penis, keeps the tube in place. The tube allows the urine to drain out.
- Behavioral therapies, including biofeedback and pelvic muscle exercises, are used to treat urge and stress incontinence.
- Continence products such as absorbent pads or diapers, incontinence clamps, or pressure cuffs may be used to manage any form of incontinence. Some of these products absorb leaked urine and some put pressure on the urethra to help prevent urine from leaking.
What To Think About
Men often use absorbent products, such as pads or diapers, when other methods of treating incontinence have failed or cannot be used. Some men may prefer to use absorbent products rather than taking medicines or having surgery. They may also use absorbent products after surgery for prostate cancer, while they are waiting to see if their incontinence goes away. This method does not treat the incontinence but manages the problem instead. In general, absorbent products should only be used along with a more specific treatment, because use of absorbent products can hide a more serious condition that may be curable.
Other Places To Get Help
|National Association for Continence (NAFC)|
|P.O. Box 1019|
|Charleston, SC 29402-1019|
NAFC is a nonprofit national organization with a mission of consumer advocacy, education of the public, and information dissemination through collaboration and networking for the benefit of those with urinary incontinence. NAFC's booklet "Your Personal Guide to Bladder Health" can be ordered on the NAFC Web site.
|National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse|
|3 Information Way|
|Bethesda, MD 20892-3580|
The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC), a federal agency, is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The clearinghouse provides information about diseases of the kidneys and urologic system to people with kidney and urologic disorders and to their families, to health professionals, and to the public. NKUDIC answers inquiries; develops, reviews, and distributes publications; and works closely with professional and patient organizations and government agencies to coordinate resources about kidney and urologic diseases.
|UrologyHealth.org, American Urological Association|
|1000 Corporate Boulevard|
|Linthicum, MD 21090|
|Phone:||1-866-RING AUA (1-866-746-4282) toll-free (U.S. only)
UrologyHealth.org is a Web site written by urologists for patients. Visitors can find specific topics by using the "search" option.
The Web site provides information about adult and pediatric urologic topics, including kidney, bladder, and prostate conditions. You can find a urologist, sign up for a free quarterly newsletter, or click on the Urology Resource Center to find materials about urologic problems.
- Nitti VW, Blaivas JG (2007). Urinary incontinence: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and management overview. In AJ Wein et al., eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed., vol. 3, pp. 2046–2078. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Other Works Consulted
- Appell RA, Winters JC (2007). Injection therapy for urinary incontinence. In AJ Wein et al., eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed., vol. 3, pp. 2272–2287. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Carlson KV, Nitti VW (2001). Prevention and management of incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Urologic Clinics of North America, 28(3): 595–612.
- Shekarriz B, et al. (2001). Intraoperative, perioperative, and long-term complications of radical prostatectomy. Urologic Clinics of North America, 28(3): 639–653.
|Editor||Kathleen M. Ariss, MS|
|Associate Editor||Pat Truman, MATC|
|Primary Medical Reviewer||E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Avery L. Seifert, MD - Urology|
|Last Updated||July 21, 2008|
Last Updated: July 21, 2008