Medical history and physical exam for colorectal cancer
You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being ready to answer the following questions:
- What are your main symptoms? Although
colorectal cancer does not always cause symptoms,
common symptoms include:
- Abdominal cramps.
- A change in your bowel habits (either constipation or diarrhea).
- Blood in your stools.
- Narrow stools.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Loss of appetite.
- How long have you had the symptoms?
- Are your symptoms getting worse?
- Do you smoke or use other types of tobacco?
- What foods do you typically eat? Do you eat a lot of processed foods and animal fats?
- Have you ever been told you have cancer, either colorectal or another type?
- Has anyone else in your family ever been diagnosed with colorectal or another type of cancer?
- Do you have any type of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease?
- What drugs do you take? Make a complete list of all your prescriptions and any over-the-counter drugs and take the list with you to your appointment.
During a physical exam, your doctor will:
- Take your temperature and weight.
- Listen to your heart and lungs.
- Inspect your abdomen for signs of a tumor, enlargement of your liver, or swelling.
- Perform a digital rectal exam.
Why It Is Done
A complete medical history and physical exam will help your doctor find the cause of your symptoms. It will also help decide whether you need more tests.
The results of the medical history and physical exam may mean that a person needs to begin routine testing for colorectal cancer earlier than age 50 and have it more often. You may need earlier or more frequent testing if you:
- Already have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
- Have a first-degree relative (parent, brother, sister, or child) with an adenomatous polyp or colorectal cancer.
- Are an African American. The American College of Gastroenterology recommends that African Americans start routine testing for colorectal cancer at age 45.
- Have had adenomatous polyps removed from your colon. This type of polyp is more likely to turn into cancer, though the risk is still very low.
- Have inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
- Have a rare inherited polyp syndrome.
- Have had endometrial cancer or ovarian cancer.
- Have had radiation treatments to the abdomen or pelvis.
What To Think About
If your medical history and physical exam lead your doctor to suspect colorectal cancer, you will need more tests. These tests may include colonoscopy, fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, biopsy, and complete blood count.